Alphabetic Japanese-Kanji-English Budo Dictionary

Overzicht Kihon

Kyokushinkai Karate wordt wereldwijd beoefend door ruim 15 miljoen mensen. Binnen verschillende organisaties, in meer dan 160 landen en door personen die veelal verschillende talen spreken. In de Dojo, tijdens toernooien, zomerkampen en andere internationale officiele Kyokushin gelegenheden vormen we een familie en gebruiken we een universele taal, Dojo-taal. Alle technieken, opdrachten, voorwaarden en attenties gebruiken zijn traditioneel in het Japans, zodat we elkaar internationaal kunnen begrijpen, respecteren en waarderen.

MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
A
Abara Rib, as an actual skeletal structure, and not the associated kyūsho
Abunai 危ない Dangerous or precarious
Adaya 徒矢 Arrow that misses its mark
Agaru 上がる To rise up
Agatsu 吾勝 Victory over the self
Age 揚げ Rising
Age empi uchi 揚猿臂打ち Rising elbow strike; also tate empi uchi or age hiji uchi
Age uchi 揚げ打ち Uppercut
Age haisoku uchi 揚背足受打ち Rising instep strike
Age hiji uchi 揚肘打ち Rising elbow strike; also tate empi uchi or age empi uchi
Age kakato geri 揚踵蹴 Rising heel kick to the rear, a quick snapping kick, not a kekomi
Agena Shokuho (1870 - 1924) Okinawan karateka (Shuri-te) and expert in kobudō; also Tairaguwa Gushikawa or Agena Ukikata
Age uke 揚げ受け Rising block; also aji uke
Age uke gyaku ashi 揚げ受け逆足 Upper block (reverse foot); also gyaku age uke
Age tsuki 揚げ突き Rising punch
Ago Chin or jaw
Ago tsuki 顎突き Straight punch to the chin
Ago oshi Kin van tegenstander omhoogduwen om zijn evenwicht / balans te verstoren
Ago uchi / Seiken ago uchi 顎打ち (Trek)Stoot naar de kin
Agura 胡座 Informal cross-legged sitting; also agura wo kaku or, more formally, as anza 安座, cf. seiza
Agura wo kaku 胡座をかく Informal seating position
Aida Distance, interval; also ma
Aiki 合気 "Meeting of the ki," impassive state of mind of the combatant
Aikibattō 合気抜刀 Sword drawing exercise, solo or paired
Aikidō 合気道 A shin or gendai budō; lit “way of the unification of the spirit”
Aiki in yo hō 合気陰陽法 "Harmony of mind based on Yin and Yang"
Aiki jō 合気杖 Stick or staff used in aikidō or the set of techniques using that staff
Aiki jujutsu 合気柔術 “Gentle art of the unification of the spirit”
Aikiken aikidō 合気剣合気道 Aikidō versus an opponent armed with a staff or sword
Aikuchi 合い口 or 匕首 Lit "fitting mouth"; tantō or very short samurai sword
Ai satsu 挨拶 Greetings and conversational etiquette, including congratulations, thanks and fellowship
Ai tsuki 相突 Mutual thrust
Ai uchi 相打ち Simultaneous strike; mutual kill
Akahachi Oyakei Okinawan expert in bōjutsu, credited with the kata, Akahachi no gyakubō
Akai or Aka 赤い Red
Aka (shiro) ippon Rood (wit) scoort een ippon (vol punt)
Aka (shiro) no kachi Rood (wit) heeft gewonnen
Aka obi 赤帯 Red belt, signifying high dan grade
Akamine Eisuke (1925-1999) Okinawan expert of kobudō
Akiresuken アキレス腱 Achilles tendon
Akogare 憧れ "Yearning," as for knowledge or exposure to the martial ways
Akō gishi 赤穂義士 The tale of the 47 ronin; lit. "loyal samurai of Akō"
Akō rōshi 赤穂浪士 The tale of the 47 ronin; lit. "the Akō wandering samurai"
Aku ga nuketa hito 灰汁が抜けた人 Someone who thinks of the welfare of others before that of her/himself.
Aku ga tsuyoi 灰汁が強 "Being strong in lye": someone who is so full of her/himself that s/he is difficult to be near
Amado Lower neck (target)
Amakuni Yasutsuna (c. 700) 天國 安綱 First Japanese swordsmith to use folding process
Anken Throwing knife or star; also shuriken, byō, daken, fusatsuken, gekiken, onken, sanbukaken, shaken or tōken
Anki Hidden weapons of Okinawa
Antei 安定 Balance and stability
Anza 安座 Informal cross-legged sitting; cf. seiza; also agura 胡座
Anzen 安全 Safety
Anzen chitai 安全地帯 Comfort zone
Aoi 青い Blue or green
Aragaki no kon Bō kata
Ararebō あられ棒 Japanese weapon, hardwood club about 40 cm long with metal ends
Arhat Boxing Monk Fist Boxing; also Lohan Boxing or Luohan Quan 羅漢拳
Arigatō 有難う Thank you
Arigatō gozaimasu 有り难う御座います Semiformal "thank you"
Arigatō gozaimashita 有り難う御座いました Formal "thank you"
Arukikata 歩き方 Methods of walking, the way one walks
Asade dake 浅手丈? "It's only a flesh wound"
Asagasumi 朝霞 Literally "morning mist"; body area under the chin, bottom of chin or chin itself; vital point
Asa geiko 朝稽古 Morning training or early morning training, especially in reference to summer training (training on the hottest day of the year)
Asahi 旭 or 朝日 Morning sun, sunrise
Asano Naganori (1667 - 1701) 浅野長矩 Daimyō whose suicide triggered the events told in the story of the 47 ronin
Ase Sweat
Ashi Foot
Ashi Leg
Ashi ate 足当 Foot strike
Ashi barai 足払い Foot sweep
Ashi fumi 足踏 Foot stamp
Ashi fumikae 足踏み替え To change legs; lit "leg exchange"
Ashi gata Positie der voeten
Ashi gatana 足刀 Foot sword; also called sokuto
Ashihara Kaikan 芦原会館 Karate dō style founded 1980 by Ashihara Hideyuki (1944 - 1995)
Ashi kōtai 足交代 Literally, "feet alternation," command to switch sides during a drill
Ashikubi 足首 Ankle, literally "neck of the foot"
Ashikubi o mawasu undō 足首を回す運動 Foot and ankle circle, junbi undō (warm-up exercise)
Ashi no kō 足の甲 Instep
Ashi no ura 足の裏 Sole of the foot
Ashi o mae yoko ni nobasu undō 足を前横に伸ばす運動 Leg lift and turn, junbi undō (warm-up exercise)
Ashi sabaki 足さばき Footwork
Ashi saki o ageru undō 足先を上げる運動 Heel pivot, junbi undō (warm-up exercise)
Ashi waza 足技 Foot technique
Ashi yubi 足指 Toes
Ashi zoko 足底 Sole of the foot; also Teisoku
Asobi ja nai 遊びじゃない “Don’t fool around”
Asobi te 遊び手 Playing at martial arts; sport martial arts.
Atama Head
Atatameru 温める To warm oneself through physical exercise
Ate 当て Strike
Atemi 当身 Striking on the body, during kihon
Atemi no kokyū 当身の呼吸 The rhythm or feeling of striking
Atemi waza Slagtechnieken naar het lichaam
Atenai yoni Waarschuwing zonder straf
Ateru 当てる To strike, hit, touch
Ato Back or behind; also kō
Ato ashi 後足 Back foot
Ato no kehanashi 後の蹴離し Snapping kick using the back of the foot
Ato uchi 後打 Delayed strike; feint
Ato uchi waza 後打技 Feinting techniques
Ato tsuki 後突 Delayed punch; breaking the anticipated rhythm of a punch
Au 会う To meet; as in to meet an opponent in contest
Awase 合せ Combined
Awase waza 合せ技 Combined techniques
Awase tsuki 合せ突き Flowing punch; U punch; also morote zuki; also, a straight punch delivered and withdrawn at high speed.
Awase morote tsuki 合せ諸手突き Double flowing punch
Awase uchi 合せ打 Combined strike
Awase uke 合せ受け Combined block
Awase age uke 合せ揚受け Combined upper block with both arms
Awase mawashi uke 合せ回し受け Combined roundhouse block as in karate kata Kanku Dai
Awase mawashi kake uke 合せ回し掛受け Combined roundhouse hooking block as in karate kata
Awasete ippon 合せて一本 Scoring ippon by combining two waza ari
Ayumi 歩み Step or pace
Ayumi ashi 歩み足 Normal, ordinary walking, where the legs move forward alternatively, cf. tsugiashi
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
B
Ba Horse
Baguazhang 八卦掌 "Eight trigram palm," one of the three best known styles of internal Chinese boxing; also pa kua chang
Baida 白打 Chinese name for atemi to vital points; lit "white strike"; Japanese: hakuda; Okinawan: beida
Bajutsu 馬術 Art of horsemanship
Baka 馬鹿 Stupid, silly, foolish, a fool, an idiot, an ass, a moron, a jerk
Baka o miru 馬鹿を見る "To make a fool of oneself"
Bakbakan Lit "to fight or brawl," modern Filipino fighting system
Bakufu 幕府 Samurai government under a shōgun
Banbutsu ryuten 万物流転 "All things are in a state of flux"
Bandōmusha 関東武者 Someone of civility, propriety or dignity; a samurai of the Kantō region
Bando yoga Yoga practiced by ancient warriors of northern Burma
Bankokuchōki 蛮国蝶器 Forged iron knuckleduster of the Nagao ryū; metal ring with spikes, Japanese weapon; also tekkan-su
Banzai 万歳 Congratulations, hurrah, long life, literally "ten thousand years"
Barai 払い Sweep (combination form)
-basami 挟み Scissors (combination form)
Bassai Dai 披塞大 Karate kata, "To penetrate a fortress, major"
Bassai Sho 披塞小 Karate kata, "To penetrate a fortress, minor"
Battō 抜刀 Sword drawing; drawn or naked blade
Battōjutsu 抜刀術 Art/science of drawing a sword
Beikoku 米国 America
Beikokujin 米国人k American
Benkyō 勉強 Study
Benzoku dachi A leg-crossing transitional stance, one foot crossed diagonally in front of the other, prior to turning
Betsuden 別傳 "Separate or special transmission"; secret teaching to the highest or most loyal students
Bi Nose; also hana
Bluming, Jon (1933 - 2019) Dutch jūdōka and Kyokushinkai karateka
A long staff; a staff of any length
Bōdō 棒道 The way of the staff, a gendai budō
Bōgyo 防御 Defense
Boin 母印 Thumbprint, often used on certificates as a means of authentication
Bōjutsu 棒術 Art of the staff
Bokken 木剣 Wooden sword; also bokutō 木刀
Bokken kake 木剣掛け Lit "wooden sword hook"; a rack for holding bokken
Boku Tree; wood; wooden
Bokuseki 墨跡 Form of Japanese calligraphy, shodō
Bokusen 木扇 Wooden fan; a wooden tenarashi, a weapon that looks like a closed folding fan; also tenarashigata bokusen
Bokutō 木刀 Wooden sword; also bokken 木剣
Bō ryaku 谋略 Strategy
Bōryoku 暴力 Violence
Boshi 拇指 Thumb
Boshiken 拇指拳 Thumb tip strike
Boshi uchi 拇指打ち A thumb strike
Bō shuriken 棒手裏剣 Throwing spikes
Buai geiko randori de hardste manier van vechten; niet op wedstrijdregels tot het uiterste gaan
Budō 武道 Martial way
Budō dentō bunka 武道伝統文化 Traditional martial arts culture
Budoka beoefenaar van een of meerdere Japanse krijgskunsten
Budōkan 武道館 Budō hall; budō training hall
Budōkan 武道館 Shortened form of Nippon Budōkan, the large hall in Tōkyō
Budō seishin 武道精神 Martial spirit
Budōshi 武道士 Colloquially, a person who emulates the spirit of budō
Budōshoshinshū 武道初心集 "Elementary readings in the martial ways," a book by Daidōji Yūzan (1639 - 1730)
Budō Tetsugaku Giron 武道哲学議論 Martial ways philosophy discussion
Bugei 武芸 Martial craft or art
Bugei juhappan 武芸十八般 The 18 traditional martial arts
Bugeisha 武芸者 Exponent of the bugei
Bujin 武人 Military person; soldier
Bujutsu 武術 Martial art or martial craft; in Chinese, wushu
Bukatsu 部活 Sports or culture club
Buke temae 武家点前 A specific kind of tea ceremony reserved for bushi, whose techniques included the use of certain tea utensils for defense and attack
Buki 武器 A general term for "weapon"
Buki'gwa Okinawan weapons or weapons fighting
Buki ho manier(en) wapens te hanteren
Bukinashi 武器無 Unarmed
Buki no bu 武器の武 Armed attack
Buki rei 武器礼 Formal bow to one's weapon
Bukiwaza 武器技 Weapons techniques
Bukkyō 仏教 Buddhism
Bukyō 武教 Teachings of Bushidō
Bun Academic learning
Bunbunbai ぶんぶんばい Classical Japanese flail weapon
Bungaku 文学 Literature
Bunka 文化 Culture, civilization
Bunkai 分解 Literarry "having been cut into many parts"; analysis of kata, including applications (ōyō)
Busai 武歳 or 武才 Martial intuition, martial mind, martial awareness, correct martial way
Bushi 武士 Aristocratic warrior, including the level of the samurai
Bushidō 武士道 The way of the warrior; the samurai code of conduct
Bushin 武心 Spiritual level of the martial ways; also take no kami
Bushi no ichi gon 武士の言 "The word of a samurai"; the guarantee of truth
Bushi no kagami 武士の鑑 A paragon of the warrior
Bushi no nasake 武士の情け "The gentleness of the warrior"
Bushi no te 武士の手 "The hand of the warrior"
Busho 不精 Lazy
Busō 武装 Armaments, literally, "martial dressing"
Butsukari 打つ借り Stopping the opponent's charge (in trainining) and swinging him/her down
Butsukari ぶつかり Training through repeated movements
Butsumetsu 仏滅 Floating rib
Butsutekishigen 物的資源 Lectures
Buyu 武友 Martial friends
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
C
Cha Tea; brown
Chadai 茶代 Mat fee paid when visiting a dōjō, normally paid to a senior student discretely before class begins
Chadō 茶道 The way of tea; the tea ceremony; also sadō or cha no yu
Chairo 茶色 Brown
Chajin 茶人 "Person of tea," someone accomplished in the way of the Japanese tea ceremony, Chadō
Chakuchi 着地 Landing after a jump; alight to ground
Chakuchi ashi 着地足 "Replacement foot"; stepping where one foot takes the place of another
Chakugan 着眼 To pay attention; point of visual focus
Chakuriki 借力 To reverse or return an opponent's strength or ki
Chakuriki no heihō 借力の兵法 The strategy of borrowing strength from another source, like one's opponent
Chakuza 着座 Act of kneeling and settling into seiza; command to sit in seiza
Cha no yu 茶の湯 Tea ceremony
Cha obi 茶帯 Brown belt
Chashitsu 茶室 "Tea room," hut for sadō, the Japanese tea ceremony
Chasen gami Knot; knoopkapsel van de Samurai
Chashitsutō 茶室 刀 "Tea room sword," short bokutō (wooden sword) carried in a chashitsu (tea room), where conventional weapons such as the katana were prohibited
Chaya 茶屋 Japanese teahouse (also chashitsu 茶室) or tea dealer; euphemism for Edo period brothel
Chen shi taijiquan 陈氏太極拳 Chen style tai chi chu'an
Chi Earth (one of the Five Elements); ground; region
Chi Blood
Chi Chinese pronunciation of ki; also qi
Chiburi 血振り The action of removing blood from a blade in iaidō
Chichi Breast; also nyū
Chichigiribō 乳切棒 Lit "chest cut staff," classical Japanese weapon, a hardwood staff that reached from the ground to the chest, approximately the length of a jō, a kobuki or minor weapon in use from the Kamakura period (1192-1332) on; also chigirikibō
Chidori ashi 千鳥足 Crossover step, as in the karatedō kata Naihanchi, also kani ashi; stagger or reel as if drunk; "thousand feet" (type of tai sabaki); sliding the feet moving sideways
Chigai 違い Difference, discrepancy
Chigau 違う "It's different," "No"
Chigirikibō 乳切木棒 Classical Japanese weapon, a hardwood staff that reached from the ground to the chest, approximately the length of a jō, a kobuki or minor weapon in use from the Kamakura period (1192-1332) on; also chichigiribō
Chiisai 小さい Small or little
Chi ishi 力石 Hojo undō device, stone weight attached to a stick; also chikara ishi
Chikai 近い Near or close; to close with an opponent
Chikama de afstand tijdens een gevecht waarbij direct raken mogelijk is zonder een (in)stap te moeten maken
Chikara Physical strength; power; capability; influence; also ryoku
Chikara irete innerlijke kracht / spirit
Chikara ishi 力石 Hojo undō device, stone weight attached to a stick; also chi ishi
Chikara no daishikata de uitbreiding van de kracht
Chikara o nuku 力を抜く Lit "more skill, less force"; let go of strength/tension; relax
Chikara o dasu kracht vergroten
Chika yoru 近寄る To shorten the distance to the opponent
Chikubi 乳首 Nipple (target)
Chi kung 氣功 Cultivation of qi, internal energy (Chinese)
Chikutō 竹刀 Bamboo practice sword; shinai
Chimugukuru Okinawan term for the secrets of the martial arts
Chinchaku 沈着 Composure, calmness
Chin kon 鎮魂 Calming the spirit
Chin kuchi チンクチ Focused, controlled energy or ki
Chinugui 血拭い Classical actions of removing blood from sword, as distinguished from the symbolic chiburi
Chio ken 地王拳 Methods of defense against a continuous attack commencing with a kick
Chisai klein
Chisa katana 小さ刀 Japanese sword that is shorter than a katana but longer than a wakizashi
Chisei 知声 Knowing voice, a kind of kiai
Chitai 地帯 Zone or area
Chitai no geriwaza 帯の蹴り技 Kicking zone
Chitai no uchiwaza 帯の打技 Striking zone
Chitai no katamawaza 帯の固め技 Grappling zone
Chitai no newaza 帯の寝技 Ground fighting zone
Chitai no buki waza 帯の武器技 Individual weapon zone
Chi wa mizu yori mo koshi 血は水よりも濃し Lit "blood is thicker than water"
Chō Jump
Chōbō 長棒 Long staff
Chōdo kake Stand for a sword or arrows
Chokkaku haaks op elkaar
Chokkan 直観 Lit "intuition"; to know the proper response without thinking
Choku Direct or straight
Chokuritsu 直立 Natural stance, shizentai, musubi dachi
Chokusen 直線 Direct/straight line
Chokutō 直刀 Straight sword
Choku tsuki 直突き Direct thrust, straight punch, often performed in hachiji dachi; sometimes kara tsuki
Chonmage 丁髷 The topknot worn by bushi
Chōsen 朝鮮 Korea
Choshi 調子 Rhythm; tone; pitch; time; vein; mood; way; manner; style; condition; state of health
Choshi waza 調子技 Techniques that harmonize with attacker's momentum
Cho shin flexibele geest
Cho suko flexibel lichaam
Chototsu Kyoshi mato (vital point target) between the eyes
Chotto 一寸 ちょっと A little; just a bit; "Hey!"
Chōwa 調子 Accommodation; harmony
Chōwasuru To harmonise with an opponent
Chōyaku 跳躍 Jumping (type of tai sabaki)
Chōyaku hangeki 跳躍反撃 Counterattack which involves jumping
Chōyaku jutsu 跳躍術 Training in leaping and jumping
Chū Loyalty
Chū Middle; also naka
Ch'uan fa 拳法 Chinese boxing; "way of the fist"; also Ken Fat (Cantonese)
Ch'uan shu Fist art
Chūdan 中段 Middle level
Chūdan age hiza geri 中段揚膝蹴り Middle level rising knee strike
Chūdan barai uke 中段払い受け Middle level sweeping block
Chūdan choku tsuki 中段直突き Middle level straight punch
Chūdan empi uke 中段猿臂受け Middle level elbow block
Chūdan gyaku tsuki 中段逆突き Middle level reverse punch
Chūdan mawashi hiza geri 中段回し膝蹴り Middle level roundhouse knee strike
Chūdan kagi tsuki 中段鈎突き Middle level hook punch
Chūdan keitō uke 中段鶏頭受け Middle level chicken head wrist block
Chūdan mawashi empi 中段回し猿臂 Middle level roundhouse elbow (strike)
Chūdan mae geri 中段前蹴り Middle level front kick
Chūdan morote tsuki 中段諸手突き Middle level two-handed punch
Chūdan no kamae 中段の構え Middle level stance or middle level guard; in kenjutsu, the tip of the sword is aimed at the throat
Chūdan oi tsuki 中段追い突き Middle level lunge punch; also jun tsuki
Chūdan ryōshō tsukami uke 中段両掌掴み受 Middle level both hands grasping block
Chūdan shuto uke 中段手刀受け Middle level knife hand block
Chūdan teisho furi uchi 中段底掌振打ち Middle level palm heel circular strike
Chūdan uchi 中段打ち Middle level strike
Chūdan uchi uke 中段内受け Middle level inside block
Chūdan ude uke 中段内腕け Middle level forearm block
Chūdan ura mikazuki geri 中段裏三日月蹴り Middle level reverse crescent moon kick
Chūdan ushiro empi 中段後ろ猿臂 Middle level back elbow (strike)
Chūdan ushiro geri 中段後ろ蹴り Middle level back kick
Chūdan yoko empi uchi 中段横猿臂打ち Middle level side elbow strike
Chūdan yoko geri kekomi 中段横蹴り蹴込み Middle level side thrust kick
Chūdan yoko tettsui uchi 中段横鉄槌打ち Middle level side hammefist strike, as in Pinan Sandan (karate-dō)
Chūdan yoko uchi 中段横打ち Middle level side strike
Chūdan tsuki 中段突き Middle level punch
Chūgi 忠義 Loyalty
Chūgoshi 中腰 Half-rising posture on one knee
Chui waarschuwing (tijdens wedstrijd)
Chūjitsu 忠実 Loyalty, fidelity
Chūjō ryū 中条流 Koryū kenjutsu, founded by Chūjō Nagahide c. 1400
Chukitsu Atemi point in the fold of the elbow
Chūsei 中世 Period between late Heian and Momoyama
CHUSEN de lijn die het lichaam vertikaal in 2-en deelt, van neus naar de navel
Chūshin 中心 Center; core; center of movement and balance
Chūshin dori no heihō 中心取りの兵法 Strategy of taking the center
Chūshingura 忠臣蔵 Fictionalized story of the 47 ronin
CHUSHIN centrum, kern of hart
Chūshin ryoku 中心力 To develop power by keeping one's taesen (vertical center of gravity) upright.
Chūshinsen 中心線 The body centerline
Chusoku 中足 Ball of foot; sole of foot
Chuto Kyūsho point between the eyes; also uto or miken
Chu-wakizashi 中脇差 Short sword between 17.7" and 21.3" long
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
D
Dabira 段平 Japanese broadsword; big, wide sword; also danbira
Dachi 立ち Stance (combination form); on its own, pronounced Tachi
Dai Major, great, large
Daichi 台地 Plateau
Daichō 大腸 Colon
Daidankin 大臀筋 Gluteus maximus
Daidōji Yūzan (1639 - 1730) 大道寺友山 Samurai and military strategist, author of Budōshoshinshu
Daidō ryū Koryū kenjutsu, kyūba, sōjutsu and kajutsu, founded by Goto Tamauemon Tadayoshi (1644 - 1736)
Daigaku 大学 University
Daigakusei 大学生 University student; undergraduate
Daijōbu desu 大丈夫です "Alright; I am alright," "It's alright"
Dai katana 大刀 Long sword; also daitō or taitō
Dai kinniku 大筋肉 Major muscles
Daikō 代講 Substitute or assistant teacher
Daikō 乃公 I (ego) (boastful first-person pronoun)
Dai kyō soku kei 大強速軽 "Big strong fast smooth"
Daikyū 大弓 Japanese longbow or war bow
Daimyō 大名 Feudal lord
Daimyō tobiguchi 大名鳶口 Lit "daimyō's kite's beak," fire ax or fire hook adapted for use as a weapon by samurai and daimyō
Dai Nippon Butokukai 大日本武徳会 Imperial Japan Martial Association
Dai Nippon Butokukai Budō Senmon Gakkō 大日本武徳会 武道専門学校 Imperial Japan Martial Association Specialized Budō School, founded in 1895 by the Japanese government to preserve traditional Japanese martial ways. Its headquarters is the Butokuden.
Dai Nippon Iaidō Renmei 大日本居合道連盟 Imperial Japan Iaidō Federation
Dairi 代理 Proxy, representative, agent, substitute, alternate
Daisaku 代作 Something made by a pupil in the name of his master, with permission and guidance
Dai sempai 代先輩 Highest ranking student under the sensei
Dai sensei 大先生 Great teacher; jūdan
Daishō 大小 Two swords of the samurai, the katana and the wakizashi; literally, "big and small"
Daishō no heihō 大小の兵法 "Large and small" strategy; to use the correct response, neither overkill nor underestimation
Daitai 大腿 Thigh, also momo 腿
Daitō 大刀 Longsword, over 2 shaku. Also, katana tachi.
Daken 打剣 Throwing knife or star; also shuriken, anken, byō, fusatsuken, gekiken, onken, sanbukaken, shaken or tōken
Daken taijutsu 打拳体術 The art of striking with the body, atemi
Dakikubi 抱き首 Lit "embrace neck," near-decapitating cut by the kaishakunin, the second to someone performing seppuku
Dame 駄目 Wrong, no good, impossible, must not do
Damatte keiko 黙って稽古 “Zen instructions for setting aside extraneous concerns and entering completely into practice”—or, “Shut up and train”
Damawashii fighting spirit
Dan Black belt grade
Danchu Kyūsho point at top of sternum
Dan-i 段位 Japanese rank system of dan and kyū
Danpatsu shiki 断髪式 Ceremony of cutting off the topknot of a retiring sumōtori
Danryoku 弾力 Resilience, elasticity, flexibility
Dan shinsa 段審査 Black belt examination
Danyaku 弾薬 Ammunition
Daruma 達磨 Legendary Indian monk who brought Zen and the foundations of kung fu to Shaolin; also Bodhidharma or Tamo
Dattō 出刀 Remove sword from obi, cf. osame to
De Advanced or forward; advancing
Deai 出合い Encounter; sensing an impending attack and launching a preemptive one; utilizing an opening created an intention to attack
Deai osae 出会い押え Suppressive and smothering attack
Deai osae uke 出会い押え受け Stepping in pressing block
Deashi barai 出足払 Advanced foot sweep
De geiko 出稽古 Advanced training
Dehana waza 出端技 To strike as the beginning of an opponent's movement; attack using initial move of opponent; also debana waza
Den Transmission (of knowledge), as in okuden
Denbu 臀部 Buttocks; haunches
Denko Kyūsho, between seventh and eighth ribs
Densho 伝書 Technique scroll; recorded teachings
Dento Kyūsho, bregma of the skull
Dento 伝統 Tradition
Dentōteki 伝統的 Traditional; conventional
Deshi 弟子 Student, apprentice or disciple of a dō; a student of a school is a seito or gakusei
Deshite 出し手 "Presenting the fists"; punching
Do Earth, soil; Earth as one of the Five Elements is 地 chi or tsuchi
The way; road (also michi)
Movement, activity
Dōchū no sei 動中の静 Stillness in motion; calm in the midst (chu) of action, the ideal state for combat; also dō chū sei
Dōchū kōgai Small wooden stick up to 15 cm long containing a knife or spike
Dōchūzashi 道中差 Japanese short sword; "dōchū" literally means "while on the street" or "while on a journey," so the dōchūzashi was as short sword inserted into the sash while travelling
Dōgi 道着 or 道衣 Uniform of the way
Dōgu 道具 The armor used in kendō also bōgu
Dōhai 同輩 Equal; peer; someone equal in rank; contemporary
Dohyō 土俵 Ring for a sumō match
Dō itashimashite どういたしまして You're welcome
Dōjō 道場 Place of the way
Dōjō arashi 道場嵐 "Dōjō storming": visiting dōjō to make challenges to fight; also dōjō yaburi
Dōjō cho 道場長 Director of a dōjō
Dōjō kun 道場訓 Rules of the dōjō
Dōjō yaburi 道場破リ Storming another dōjō; lit "dōjō busting"; also dōjō arashi
Dōka 道歌 Poetry of the way
Dōkan 道環 "The ring of the way"; repetition, constant practice
Dokko Atemi point in the hollow below the ears and behind the jaw; the mastoid process
Dokosen Kyūsho, side of neck; also shofu
Dokusan 獨參 Private meeting between a Zen master and disciple
Dokushu zelftraining; training door zelfstudie
Dō kyaku 動脚 Moving leg
Dōkyō 道教 Japanese Taoism, lit "teachings of the way"
Dokyu Japanese repeating crossbow
Dōmo どうも Many; much; informal phrase for "thank you"
Dōmo arigato gozaimashita どうも有り難う ございました Polite form of thanks, "Thank you very much"
Donto hō 呑吐息 Breathing technique
Dori 取り Grapple; grab; grasp; pull
Doryoku 努力 Effort
Dōsa 動作 Exercise; exercise; movements
Dōshu 道守 Keeper of the way, also michi mori
Dōshu 道主 Leader or master of the way
Dōtoku 道徳 Morality
Dōzo どうぞ Kindly; please; please go ahead
Draeger, Donn (1922 - 1982) American widely regarded as the foremost Western expert of Japanese fighting methods
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
E
Ebigeri 海老蹴り Back kick with both hands on the floor or ground
Ebi jime 蝦絞め Shrimp choke; also tsukkomi jime
Edo 江戸 Ancient name for Tōkyō
Edo jidai 江戸時代 Edo period, the time of the Tokugawa shogunate, 1600-1867
Edo period 江戸時代 The time of the Tokugawa shogunate, 1600-1867
Eiki kujiki 鋭気挫き To break the opponent's spirit
Eishin ryū 英信流 Battōjutsu ryū founded c 1590 by Hayashizaki Jinsuke Minamoto no Shigenobu (1546 - 1621); also Musō Jikiden Eishin-ryū
Ekika 腋窩 Armpit
Ekudi Oar or paddle, Kobudō weapon; also ueku, kai, kai bo, eku
Embu 演武 Martial arts demonstration; also enbu
Embujō 演武場 Place where martial arts demonstrations are held
Embusen 演武線 Line of kata
Empi or enpi 猿臂 Elbow, lit "monkey elbow"; note, outside of karate, 肘 hiji is the general term for elbow
Empi ate 猿臂当て Elbow strike
Empi mae ate 猿臂前当て Forward elbow strike
Empi mawashi ate 猿臂回わし当て Roundhouse elbow strike
Empi shita ate 猿臂下当て Downward elbow strike
Empi soto ate 猿臂外当て Sideways elbow strike; also soto empi ate
Empi uchi 猿臂打ち Elbow strike
Empi uke 猿臂受 Elbow block
Empi waza 猿臂技 Elbow technique
En Circle
Enbu 演武 Martial arts demonstration; also embu
Enoji dachi えの字立 Stance with back foot on the ball?
Enshin 遠心 Centrifugal
Enshin ryoku 遠心力 Centrifugal force generated by a technique
Enshū 演習 Drill or exercise
Ensō 円相 Painted ink circle of Zen; also ichi ensō
Ensho-sen verlenging (van een wedstrijd)
En undō 円運動 Circular movement
Enzan no metsuke 遠山の目付け Lit "Looking at the far mountain"; looking at your opponent to take in everything
Etsunen geiko 越年稽古 Traditional training to celebrate the New Year
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
F
Forty-seven ronin 四十七士 National legend of Japan, also known as the Akō rōshi (Akō Wandering Samurai) 赤穂浪士 or the Genroku akō jiken (Genroku Akō Incident) 元禄赤穂事件. Fictionalized as Chūshingura.
Wind; also kaze
Fude Calligraphy brush; also hitsu
Fudō dachi 不動立 Immovable or rooted stance
Fudōken 不動拳 Clenched fist; immovable fist
Fudō Myō-ō 不動明王 or 不動妙王 Buddhist divinity of wisdom and fire; also Fudō
Fudō shisei 不動姿勢 Position with feet together
Fujian Chinese province where Karatedo has its roots, particulary in the area of the town Fuzhou
Fuju bun onvoldoende kracht
Fukai To hold strongly
Fukkin 腹筋 Abdominal muscles
Fukkin undō 腹筋運動 Abdominal exercises
Fukko 伏虎 Kneeling
Fuku Abdomen or belly; also hara
Fukubu 腹部 Abdomen
Fukuru shinai 袋竹刀 Training sword made of a split bamboo stick inside a leather or doeskin bag, lit "bag shinai"
Fuku shidoin 副指導員 Assistant instructor
Fukushiki kokyū 腹式呼吸 Abdominal breathing
Fukushin hulp scheidsrechter
Fukuto Atemi point on the lower part of the leg
Fumi 踏み Step
Fumiashi 踏み足 Step with change of feet
Fumi dashi An action involving one foot sliding forward
Fumi kiri 踏み切り Cutting kick
Fumi komi 踏み込み Stamp on the floor at the moment of a strike.
Fumi komi age uke 踏み込み肋受け Rising block stepping in
Fumi komi shuto uke 踏み込み手刀受け Knife hand block stepping in
Fumi komi geri 踏み込み蹴り Stamping kick
Fumi komu 踏み込も To invade or step inside the opponent's space
Fumi konde 踏み込んで With a step forward
Fumi uchi 踏み打ち Techniques executed while you step forward
Fumu 踏む To step or tread
Funakoshi, Gichin (1868-1957) 船越 義珍 Founder of Shōtōkan karate (grondlegger van het Shotokan Karate en eerste Karate leraar van Mas Oyama)
Funkotsu saishin 粉骨砕身 To put in all your energy
Funpon shugi 粉本主義 The principle that copying a model was the fundamental way to learn, especially in calligraphy or painting.
Funsen 奮戦 Battle bravely; hard fighting
Furi To swing
Fushi Knuckle or joint
Fuson 不遜 Disrespect, arrogance, insolence
Futa kokyu ippuku Breathe in and out twice, then breathe in once and start waza
Futari geiko 二人稽古 Two person drill
Futari waza technieken tegen 2 personen
Futomomo 太腿 Quadriceps, thigh; also momo, daitai
Futsu geiko Form of practice in which practitioners of all levels alternate repeating techniques shown by the sensei
Fuzhou Capitol of the Chinese nprovince Fujian. The Town where both Higaonna Kanryo and Miyagi Chojun studied Chinese martial arts.
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
G
Gaijin 外人 Foreigner
Gai shaku taku 外尺沢 Back of the wrist
Gaiwan 外腕 Forearm; outer arm
Gakuga 楽画 Talents which can be taught or those produced by diligent training
Gaman 我慢 Patience, endurance, perseverance, tolerance, self-control, self-denial
Gambatte 頑張って "Hold out"; "persevere"; "do your best"; "good luck"; also ganbatte
Gan Eye or eyeball
Gan Face, look or countenance
Ganchu Atemi point between the fifth and sixth rib
Ganka 眼窩 Eye socket
Gankaku dachi Kraanvogel stand
Gankō 眼孔 Eye socket
Gankyū 眼球 Eyeball
Ganmen 顔面 Face
Ganmen geri 顔面蹴り Kick to the face
Ganmen shutō 顔面小刀 Face knife hand
Ganshiki 眼識 Insight, discernment, penetration
Gan soku tan riki 眼足胆力 Four key elements of kendō: sight, footwork, courage and power
Gasshuku 合宿 Training camp
Gasshō no kamae 合掌の構え Prayer posture, with palms held together
Gasshō rei 合掌礼 Formal bow with hands held together
Gatame 固め Locking or holding (combination form)
Gawa Side (combination form)
Gedan 下段 Lower
Gedan awase teishō uke 下段合せ底掌受 Lower combined palm heel block
Gedan barai 下段払い Lower sweep; lower block
Gedan choku tsuki 下段直突き Lower straight punch; straight punch to the groin
Gedan haiwan uke 下段背腕受 Lower back arm block
Gedan jūji uke 下段十字受 Lower cross block
Gedan kake uke 下段掛受け Downward hooking block
Gedan kekomi 下段蹴込み Thrust kick to groin
Gedan kote uke 下段小手受 Lower forearm block
Gedan ni oshidasu 下段に押出す Downward thrust
Gedan no kamae 下段之構 Low posture
Gedan oshidashi 下段押し出し Lower level thrust
Gedan shutō osae 下段手刀腕受け Lower level knife hand press
Gedan tsuki 下段突き Lower level punch, especially to the groin
Geidō 芸道 or 藝道 The way of art
Geiko hajime begin van de training / les
Geijutsu 芸術 Art
Geijutsuka 芸術家 Artist
Geki Beat, attack, conquer; fire, shoot, charge, rush
Gekiken kōgyō 撃剣興行 Public demonstrations of martial arts
Gekisai 撃砕 Kata series
Gekon Atemi point just below the lower lip
Gendai budō 現代武道 Modern martial way
Genki desu ka 元気ですか "How are you?"
Genkotsu 拳骨 Fist
Genkotsu Attacking vital points
Genri 原理 Principle, theory or fundamental truth
Genshi To be in tune with the attack, so that the next move can be predicted
Geri 蹴り Kick, when used in combination with others, e.g. maegeri 前蹴
Geri waza traptechniek
Gi Technique, skill, craft
Gi Right conduct or righteousness
Gimu 義務 Duty; responsibility
Gin geri trap met wreef van de voet naar het kruis
Giri 義理 Duty or obligation
Go Five
Go The condition of being behind the opponent with respect to time and space
Godai 五大 Lit 'big five"; Indian five elements: earth, water, fire, wind and void
Go dō shin 五道心 Five ways of the spirit
Gogyō setsu 五行说 Theory of the five elements; also Gogyō
Gohon kumite 五本組手 Five step sparring
Gokaku geiko 互角稽古 Practice between people of equal skill
Gōki 剛気 Fortitude, bravery, stoutheartedness
Gokoku Resuscitation point between the thumb and index finger
Gomen nasai 御免なさい "Pardon me" or "Excuse me"
Go no sen tactiek waarbij je eerst de tegenstander laat aanvallen en waarna je direct een tegenaanval maakt
Gorei 号令 Command; count for repeated techniques
Goshaku bō 五尺棒 Five-foot bō
Gōshi 郷士 Farmer warriors; warriors who held and worked the land
Goshin 護身 Self defense
Goshin jutsu 護身術 Art of self defense
Gu Tool
Guai shoko Atemi point on the back of the fist
Gyaku Reverse; opposite
Gyaku age uke 逆肋受け Reverse rising block (rising block executed with arm opposite to forward leg)
Gyaku ashi 逆足 Reverse foot
Gyaku hanmi 逆半身 Reverse half-facing position
Gyaku jūjijime 逆十字締め Reverse cross choke
Gyaku mawashi geri 逆回し蹴り Reverse roundhouse kick
Gyaku nekoashi dachi 逆猫足立 Reverse cat stance (rear heel is up and front heel in down)
Gyaku te 逆手 Underhand, backhand or reverse grip; unexpected twist
Gyaku te dori 逆手取り Reverse hand grab
Gyaku tsuki 逆突き Reverse punch
Gyōji 行司 Sumō referee
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
H
Habiki 刃引 Bated sword; metal-bladed sword, sharp or bated
Hachi Eight; eight is a special number in Japanese martial arts, with connotations of infinity
Hachiji dachi 八字立 Stance with feet set like the kanji for eight, 八; also shizentai, "natural stance"
Hachimaki 鉢巻 Japanese head wrap or head scarf worn as a symbol of perseverance or effort
Hachiman Japanse oorlogsgod, deze afbeelding staat in de vlag van Okinawa
Hacho 破調? Asymmetrical balance; intentional unevenness; broken rhythm
Hada Skin
Hadashi 肌足 Barefoot
Hade 羽手 Attacking vital points unarmed, another name for jūjutsu
Hai はい Yes
Haibu 背部 Back, back area, back rib area (a primary target in sport karate)
Haibu yori 背部より From behind
Haishu 背手 Back hand
Haishu awase uke 背手合せ受 Backhand combined block
Haishu jūji uke 背手十字受 Backhand cross block; also jūji uke
Haishu uchi 背手打ち Strike with back of hand
Haishu uke 背手受け Block with back of hand
Haisoku 背足 Instep, literally, "reverse foot"
Haitō 背刀 “Back sword”; ridge hand or inner knife hand
Haitōrei 廃刀令 Meiji government edict banning the wearing of swords in public
Haitō uchi 背刀打ち Ridge hand strike
Haitō uke 背刀受け Ridge hand block
Haiwan 背腕 Back arm
Haiwan uke 背腕受け Back arm block
Hajime 始め Begin
Hajime kara 初めから From the beginning
Hakama Divided skirt
Hakkaku bō 八角棒 Octagonal bō
Hakkeyoi はっけよい “Keep at it”; "Get moving!", called out by the gyōji (referee) to commence a sumō match
Hakude 白手 Another name for jūjutsu
Hamni afgewende houding
Hamni dachi gevechtsstand met afgewende houding
Hamon 破門 Formal expulsion from a ryū
Han Half
Hana Flower; also ka
Hana Nose; also bi
Hana ji tome 鼻血止 Nosebleed stop; method of kappō
Hanare 離れ The release of an arrow in kyūdō; the metaphor of release in its own or proper time
Hanbō 三棒 Short staff, usually about three shaku
Hangeki 反撃 Counterattack
Hanka fuza 半跏趺坐 Half-lotus sitting position; also hanka 半跏, hankaza 半跏坐, hanfuza 半趺坐, daibosatsuza 大菩薩坐, and bosatsuza 菩薩坐
Han kōkutsu dachi 半後屈立 "Half back stance," shortened and raised kōkutsu dachi
Hanmi 半身 Half-facing: hips and head facing to the front, but the torso slightly rotated
Hanmi no nekoashi dachi 半身の猫足立 Half-facing cat stance
Hansei 反省 Self-reflection
Hansha undō or Hansha sayō 反射運動 or 反射作用 Reflex action
Hanshaku bō 半尺棒 Six-inch stick; also te no uchi, yawara, shoshinbō and kobuton
Hanshi 範士 Teaching distinction above both renshi and kyōshi; also, shihan 師範
Hansoku straf voor gemene/oneerlijke overtreding
Hansoku chui officiïele waarschuwing, Ippon (vol punt) tegen
Hansoku kachi winst /overwinning door diskwalificatie van de tegenstander
Hantai 反対 Opposed
Hanten 半転 Half turn
Hantei / Hantei torimasu vraag door scheidsrechter om het oordeel van de hoekscheidsrechters
Hantei kachi winnaar door de beslissing van de scheidsrechters
Hantei onegaishimasu vraag om beslissing (vraag om rode of witte vlag omhoog te steken)
Han zenkutsudachi 半前屈立 Short front stance; also sho zenkutsu dachi, sometimes moto dachi
Hara Stomach
Hara ga suwaru 腹が据わる "To have guts"; lit "the stomach sits"
Haragei 腹芸 Stomach arts developing ki
Harai 払い Sweep; also barai e.g. gedan barai
Harai no gi 祓の儀 Opening purification ceremony; also ō harai no gi 大祓の儀
Harai te 払い手 Sweeping hand
Harai waza 払い技 Sweeping techniques
Hara kiri 腹切り Honorable death of suicide; also, more formally, seppuku 切腹
Harawata Intestines
Hashaku bō 八尺棒 Eight-foot bō
Hasso aanval
Hatsu geiko 初稽古 First training of the year; also keiko hajime 稽古始め
Hattori Hanzō (1541 - 1596) 服部半蔵 Ninja and head of clan from Iga
Hayai 速い Fast or swift
Hayaku 速く Quickly or rapidly
Hazumi 弾み Momentum, spur of the moment
Hei Peaceful, calm, steady; level, even
Heifuku kumiuchi 平服組打 Fighting in everyday clothing
Heihō 兵法 Methods of strategy; also hyōhō
Heijōshin 平常心 Lit "constant stable spirit"; peace of mind
Heikōshite 並行して Parallel
Heikō dachi 並行立ち Parallel stance
Heiko tsuki parallel stoot, dubbele stoot met 2 vuisten gelijktijdig
Heisei 平成 Current era name in Japan (1989 - )
Heisoku dachi 閉足立 Feet together stance
Henka waza 変化技 Technique variations
Hente opvolgtechniek met dezelfde hand
Hibara zijkant van het lichaam
Hichōjutsu 飛鳥術 Practice of leaping and jumping
Hidari Left; also sa
Hidari do linkerkant van het lichaam
Hidari mawari 右回り Counterclockwise
Hidari shizentai 左自然体 Left natural stance. Left foot forward, body facing 45 degrees.
Hidari waki 左脇 Left side posture
Hifu 皮膚 Skin
Higashi East
Higi 秘技 Secret technique, ritual or ceremony
Hiji Elbow
Hiji age ate 肘揚当て Rising elbow strike; strike to both elbows of an attacker attempting a two-handed choke
Hiji ate 肘当て Elbow strike
Hiji oroshi uchi 肘下ろし打 Swinging elbow strike
Hiji uke 肘受 Elbow block (also empi uke)
Hiji waza 肘技 Elbow techniques
Hikitate geiko 引立-稽古 Practice in which a senior guides a junior through practice
Hikite 引き手 Pulling hand, the hand that returns to the waist when striking or blocking with the other
Hikiwake gelijktijdige score tijdens wedstrijd
Hini 品位 Grace, dignity, nobility, quality
Hinkaku 品格 Dignity, good manners and strength of character
Hinomaru 日の丸 Disc of the sun; symbol of Japan; also the rising sun flag of Japan
Hinshitsu 品質 Quality
Hiragana 平仮名 One system of kana, Japanese syllabary
Hiraken 平拳 Flat fist made with the second knuckles of all four fingers, similar to the leopard punch of kung fu
Hiraken tsuki 平拳突き Flat fist punch
Hiraki 開き Opening, gap
Hiroi hachiji dachi 広い八字立 Wide hachiji dachi
Hitai Forehead; also gaku
Hito mens (uitgesproken als sst-ooh)
Hito iki 一息 Single breath. The interval between two breaths is a vulnerable moment, and it gives the opponent an opportunity to attack. Therefore, it is important to perform waza in a single breath.
Hito kokyu ippuku Breathe in and out once, then breathe in once, then start waza
Hitori geiko 独り稽古 Practice alone
Hitori ryōhō 独り療法 Self-healing arts or massage
Hitosashiyubi ipponken 人差し指一本拳 Forefinger fist; also ippon ken
Hitsu Brush, handwriting
Hitsuzendō 筆禅道 "Way of the brush"; school of Japanese Zen calligraphy
Hiza Knee
Hiza ate 膝当 Knee strike
HIZA GAMAE positie, geknield op 1 knie
Hiza gashira or Hiza no sara 膝頭 or 膝の皿 Patella
Hiza gashira ate 膝頭当 Knee strikes
Hiza geri 膝蹴り Knee kick, knee strike
Hiza kansetsu 膝関節 Knee joint
Hiza mawashigeri 膝回し蹴り Roundhouse knee strike
Hiza o mawasu undō 膝を回す運動 Knee circle, a junbi undō ( warm-up exercise)
Hizō 脾臓 Spleen
Hizō uchi 脾臓打 Spleen strike
Method
Direction; side
Hodokosu 施す Perform; giving of ourselves
Hōgen 方言 General Japanese term for "dialect," but also the term Okinawans use for their native language.
Hojo undō 補助運動 Supplementary exercises. Traditionally Japanese includes chi shi (weighted levers; concrete weights attached to wooden poles); ishi sashi (stone hand-held weights in the shape of padlocks), makiage kigu (wrist roller; weight, rope, wooden handle); makiwara; nigiri game (gripping jars; ceramic jars filled with sand); tetsu geta (iron geta); yari bako (bowl of sand struck with fingers).
Honbu/hombu 本部 Headquarters; headquarters dōjō
Hone Bone
Hon gamae basisstand
Honshin 本心 True feelings
Hontai geeft uitdrukking aan meesterschap; volledige- of ware beheersing lichaam en geest
Hontei waarachtige- of basishand. Vastpakken of vasthouden middels een natuurlijke grip
Hotoke Buddha
Hotoke gamae handpositie van de Buddha
Hyaku One hundred
Hyaku nin honderd man; honderd mensen; honderd personen
Hyaku nin kumite vechten tegen honderd personen; de ultieme Kyokushin test
Hyogen 表現 Expression
Hyōhō 兵法 Methods of strategy; also heihō
Hyōshi 拍子 Timing, rhythm
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
I
I Stomach
I Mind, intention, will, meaning
I Dignity; authority
Iai 居合 Drawing of one's weapon from its place of rest or bringing it to bear; also nukitsuke; lit "a place where you are"; sitting down
Iaidō 居合道 "The way of mental presence and immediate reaction"; the way of drawing and cutting with the sword.
Iai goshi 居合腰 "Relationship hip," posture with one knee on the ground and the other foot flat
Iai goshi dachi 居合腰立 "Relationship hip stance," with one knee on the ground and the other foot flat
Iai hiza 居膝 Sitting posture, kneeling on one calf, allowing quick draw of sword while sitting
Iaijutsu 居合術 The art of drawing and cutting with the sword
Iainuki 居合い抜き While on one knee, drawing a sword and cutting one's opponent
Ibuche Okinawan term for ibuki
Ibuki 息吹 A breathing method featuring a long exhalation, followed by a short cough to clear lungs; in Okinawan, ibuche; see a-un no kokyū
Ibuki no gare onhoorbare ademhalingsoefening
Ibuki sankai duidelijk hoorbare ademhalingsoefening; san kai betekent 3x
Ichi One
Ichiban 一番 First; best
Ichichi 五 or 伍 Okinawan for "five"
Ichidai 一代 A generation; lifetime; age
Ichido 一度 Once
Ichi-go ichi-e 一期一会 One encounter, one opportunity
Ichi hyōshi 一拍子 In an instant; in one breath; in one moment; without hesitation
Ichikyo 一教 First teaching; also ikkyo
Ichimai 一枚 Lit "one sheet of paper"; space between one's controlled technique and one's opponent.
Ichimonji 一文字 In the shape of the character for "one," in a straight line
Ichimonji suburi 一文字素振り The practice of cutting (generally in air); to make one precise and all-ending cut.
Ichi no hyōshi no heihō 一拍子兵法 Lit "the combative strategy of the rhythm of one": completing a movement and technique in one exhalation; to condition the mind and body to seize an opportunity and act without conscious thought
Ichi rei no kamae 一礼の構え Formal kobujutsu bowing posture
Ichitaita 一対多 Lit "one against many"; multiple attackers against one defender
Idō 移動 Movement
Idō geiko 移動稽古 Moving practice or moving basics (Kyokushinkai)
Idō kihon basistechnieken (vanuit stand)
Idori technieken die vanuit zitpositie (Seiza) worden uitgevoerd
Iegara 家柄 Family background, family standing, filial lineage
Iemoto 家元 Lit "family foundation," head of a school
Ijiki Okinawan word for being full of strength (ki)
Ijime 苛め Bullying
Ijimekko 苛めっ娘 Bully
Ikebana 生け花 Japanese flower arrangement; also kadō 華道
Ikedori 生け捕り Lit "to view alive" or "to capture alive"; ikedori is much older than its modern equivalent, shakkei; a facet of Japanese architecture often present in dōjō
Iki Aesthetic ideal, lit "spirit" or "life"
Iki Breath in physical aspects, cf more esoteric kokyū
Ikinari 行き成り Suddenly, without warning, without telegraphing
Ikite Lit "living hand"; a relaxed hand, open or with no tension, but ready
Ikiuchi 息打ち Lit "striking in a single breath"; striking in the time it takes to inhale or exhale
Ikken kissatsu 一拳必殺 or 一拳乞察? One punch death blow, to kill with one attack; to kill one's ego; also ikken hissatsu
Ikkini 一気に In one breath; instantly
Ikki tōsen 一騎当千 "One man who is worth a thousand"
Ikkōgeki shimasu ni ikkazoe 一攻撃 Lit, "One count, one movement"; counting out movements of a kata
Ikko hanko 一箇半箇 Lit, "One man or half a man"; Zen term for a true successor
Ikkyo Het voor het eerst aanleren van de basisprincipes
Ikkyo undo Eerst aangeleerde techniek tijdens de eerste les
Ima Nu
In Yin
In Throat
Inibuki 息吹 Internal, quiet, soft breathing, as opposed to yo ibuki
International Martial Arts Federataion 国際武道院 In Japanese, Kokusai Budōin
Inyo 陰陽 Yin and yang
Ippan geiko 一般稽古 Regular practice in the dōjō; repeating what the sensei models
Ippon 一本 One full point in karate competition
Ippon ken 一本拳 One knuckle fist
Ippon kumite 一本组手 One step prearranged sparring in karate
Ippon nukite 一本貫手 One finger spear hand
Ippon shōbu 一本勝負 Sport kumite in which one full point wins the match
Ire tsuki ni nayasu Step back and absorb thrust or punch
Iri 入り Enter
Iri kumi 入組 or 入组 Entering attack or inside fighting; to enter to attack vital points
Irimi 入り身 Entering straight into a technique; into the body; inwards
IRIMI ISSOKU Toegang verkrijgen / verdediging doorbreken / naderen door middel van 1 stap
Iro obi 色帯 Colored belt
Isagiyoi 潔い With grace, having integrity—doing something with your whole heart, regardless of its reception; clean, clear, pure, sportsmanlike, manly;
Isagiyoku make wo mitomeru 潔く負けを認める Admit defeat agreeably, be a good loser
Isamashii 勇まし Courageous
Isami Heldhaftig
Isamihada 勇み肌 Gallantry
Ishi 意思 Intention, purpose
Ishi Stone; also seki
Isshakku bō 一尺棒 One-foot stick
Isshi ken Extended index finger
Isshin ichinyo 一心一如 One heart/mind, one likeness; as one mind
Isshin ittō 一心一刀 Lit "One mind, one sword"; one mind, one strike
Itai 痛い Pain, ache, sting, grief, hurt, "It hurts"
Itami 痛み Pain
Itami wake Winst door (niet moedwillige) verwonding van tegenstander
Itto Zwaard
Iwa Steen
Iwao no mi 巌の身 Body of a rock
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
J
Jaku Still, silent, quiet, desolate
Jakuten 弱点 Weak point, weakness
Jeet Kune Do 截拳道良 "The way of the intercepting fist," style founded by Bruce Lee
Ji Earth
Ji Character, letter, writing, script or shape
Ji Learning of technique, as contrasted to ri,
Jibun 自分 Oneself, myself
Ji geiko 地稽古 The general method of doing keiko in which the trainee polishes his/her techniques, disciplines his/her mind, and makes an effort to overcome his/her weak points.
Jigo hontai 自護本体 Basic defensive posture; crouching defensive posture
Jigoku 地獄 Hell (Buddhist)
Jikan Tijd / sein dat officiïele wedstrijdtijd voorbij is
Jiki deshi Directe student. Iemand die leerling (is geweest) onder de stijloprichter
Jikkō 実行 Self-light; self-realization
Jiku ashi 軸足 Pivot leg
Jiku ashi geri Trap naar tegenstander's been dat op de grond staat terwijl deze een trap uitvoert
Jime 絞め Choke or strangle (combination form)
Jimi 地味 Having a naturalistic, subdued and subtle character; plan, simple, sober
Jin Person
Jin Kidney
Jin Benevolence
Jinan 次男 Second son
Jing Essence or kidney essence (Chinese), one of the Three Treasures
Jinkai kyusho Vitale lichaamsdelen
Jinkan 時間 Time
Jin no kokyu Iemands ademhaling
Jintai Lichaam / het lichaam
Jinzō 腎臓 Kidney
Jisha Iemand die lesgevende assisteert (geen officieel assistant)
Jishin 自信 Self-confidence
Jissen 実戦 Real combat; realistic fighting
Jissen kumite 実戦组手 Full-contact fighting
Jita kyōei 自他共栄 Mutual benefit
Jitsu Truth; reality; sincerity, honesty, fidelity; substance; good result
Jiyū 自由 Free; freedom
Jiyū dachi 自由立 Free fighting stance
Jiyū geiko 自由稽古 Free practice; freely choosing what one studies and trains
Jiyū ippon kumite 自由一本組手 Semi-free one attack sparring
Jiyū kumite 自由組手 Free sparring
Jiyū uke Gekruiste afweer, kruislings blok met twee handen
Jiyū waza Vrije stijl technieken / vrij te gebruiken technieken (in sparring gebruikte technieken)
Short stick
Upper or high
Always, constant, continually
Place, space, room
Jō awase 杖合わせ Jō exercises
Jōdan 上段 Upper level
Jōdan age uke 上段肋受け Upper level rising block
Jōdan age tsuki 上段肋突き Upper level rising punch
Jōdan haishu jūji uke 上段背手十字受け Upper level back of hand cross block
Jōdan haitō uchi 上段背刀打ち Upper level ridge hand strike
Jōdan kakutō uke 上段鶴頭受け Upper level crane head wrist block
Jōdan mae empi 上段前猿臂 Upper level front elbow (strike)
Jōdan mawashi geri 上段回し蹴り Upper level roundhouse kick
Jōdan mawashi tsuki 上段回し突き Upper level roundhouse punch
Jōdan shutō jūji uke 上段手刀十字受け Upper level sword hand cross block, as in Heian Godan
Jōdan uke 上段受け Upper level block
Jōdan ushiro mawashi geri 上段後ろ回し蹴り Upper level back roundhouse kick
Jōdan ushiro tsuki 上段後ろ突き Upper level rear punch over opposite shoulder
Jōdan waza 上段技 Upper level technique
Jōdan yoko geri keage 上段横蹴り蹴上げ Upper level side snap kick
Jōdan tsuki 上段突き Upper level punch or thrust
Jōdō 杖道 The way of the short stick
Jōdori 杖取り Defense against jō
Jogai Het gebied buiten de wedstrijdmat
Jogai Aanduiding tijdens wedstrijd voor verlaten wedstrijdvloer
Joge Omhoog en omlaag
Jōhanshin 上半身 Upper body
Jōjutsu 杖術 Art of the short stick
Jōō Takeno (1502 - 1555) 武野 紹鴎 Master of sadō, the Japanese tea ceremony
Jorei Dojo regels
Jōseki 上関 "Upper seat" in a dōjō
Jōseki ni rei 上関に礼 Command to bow to the jōseki
Joshi goshinjutsu 女子護身術 Women's self-defense
Jōsokutei 上足底 Ball of foot, lit. "raised sole of foot"; also koshi
Jōtai 上腿 Thigh; also daitai, momo, futomomo
Jō tai jō 杖対杖 Jō versus jō
Jō tai ken 杖対剣 Jō versus sword
Jowan De bovenarm
Jozu Getalenteerd; iemand met uitmuntende technieken
Ten
Soft, pliable, flexible, gentle
Obey, submit, yield, conform, follow)
Juban Een 'onder Kimono'; gedragen onder Kimono bij koude weersomstandigheden
Jūdan 十段 Tenth degree black belt
Jūdō 柔道 "The gentle way"; method of throwing and grappling with a strong sport aspect, a gendai budō
Jugyo Instructieve training of les
Jūji 十字 Cross
Jūji ashi 十足 Stepping left or right across the other leg
Jūji uke 十字受け Cross block
Jūjun 従順 Obedient
Jūjutsu 柔術 "The flexible art"; method of fighting that includes grappling
Jūjutsugi 柔術着 or 柔術衣 Jūjutsu uniform
Juko Murata (1422 - 1502) 村田珠光 Master of sadō, the Japanese tea ceremony
Juku Private school
Jukuren 熟練 Skill, practiced skill, mastery
Jun Dichtbij / vlakbij / korte (of geringe) afstand
Junan taisō 柔軟 体操 Flexibility exercises; body conditioning
Junbi 準備 Prepare, get ready
Junbi taisō 準備体操 Preparatory exercises
Junbi taisō o hajimemasu Commando om met de warming-up te starten
Junbi taisō o owarimasu Commando om met de warming-up te stoppen
Junbi undō 準備運動 Preparatory exercises
Jun kessho-sen Semi finale
Junshin 純真 Pure heart
Jun tsuki 順突 Lunge punch; lunge thrust
Jun tszuki tsukkomi 順突突込 Leaning lunge punch
Jun tsuki tsukkomi dachi 順突突込立 Leaning lunge punch stance
Jushin 重心 Centre of gravity; stability
Jutsu Technique; art
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
K
-ka Suffix meaning “practitioner,”as in karateka
Ka Fire; one of the Godai, the Five Elements
Kabura Arrowhead
Kaburaya 蕪矢 Turnip-head arrow that makes a distinctive sound in flight
Kabuto 兜 or 冑 Helmet of samurai armour
Kachi Winst / gewonnen
Kachu men Samurai face guard or mask, usually worn with a kabuto; also mempō, menpō, menbō, men yoroi or katchu men
Kadō 華道 The way of the flower; Japanese flower arranging; also ikebana
Kadomatsu 門松 Traditional Japanese New Year's decorations, often displayed in dōjō
Kae ashi verplaatsing door het maken van een gehele stap
Kaeshi 返し Twist, turn, come back, return
Kaeshi ippon kumite 返し一本組手 Two step one attack sparring
Kaeshi waza 返し技 Counter techniques, escape techniques
Kaeshi tsuki 返し突き Counterpunch or counter thrust
Kaesu 返す Give back
Kaete 返て Returning back
Kafuza 跏跌坐 Full lotus seated position; also kekka fuza, zenka fuza, zenkaza, kaza
Kagami 屈み To crouch or duck (type of tai sabaki)
Kagami Example, model, paragon
Kagami Mirror; also kyō
Kagami biraki 鏡開き "Opening the mirror"; ritual first workout of the new year
Kagami geiko 鏡稽古 "Mirror training": training in which partners mirror each other's actions
Kage Shadow
Kagi tsuki 鉤突き Hook punch
Kahanshin 下半身 Lower body, lit "down half body"
Kahō 下方 Lower direction
Kai Association
Kai ashi Step forward
Kaibashira 貝柱 Adductor muscle
Kaicho 会長 Owner of a school or organization
Kaiden 皆伝 Full knowledge, knowledge of all secrets; high level of menkyo rank system
Kaisai no genri Deciphering bunkai from kata
Kaisho 開手 Open hand
Kaisho kōsa uke 開手交差受け Open hand cross block
Kaishu ippon kumite Sparring exercise
Kaiten 回転 Rotation; turning (type of tai sabaki)
Kaiten ashi Voorwaartse stap gevolgd door een draai op de bal van de voet
Kaiten geri or Do kaiten geri Traptechniek door voorwaartse rol / salto
Kakato Heel
Kakato geri 踵蹴り Heel kick; also axe kick; in Korean, chikyo chagi or naeryo chagi
Kakato o ageru undō 踵を上げる運動 Heel lift, junbi undō ( warm-up exercise)
Kake 掛け To hang, suspend
Kake ashi dachi 掛足立 Hooked stance, a form of kosa dachi
Kake dachi 掛立 Hook stance; also kosa dachi
Kake geri 掛蹴り Hook kick
Kake shuto uke 掛手刀受け Hooking knife hand block
Kake te 掛手 Hook punch; hook block
Kake uke 掛受け Hooking block
Kakiwaki uke 掻き分け受け Reverse wedge block
Kaku Corner or angle
Kaku Crane
Kaku obi 角帯 Wide belt to support carried weapons
Kakushi 隠し Hidden
Kakuto 格闘 Hand to hand combat
Kakutō 鶴頭 "Crane head"; bent wrist formation
Kakutō uchi 鶴頭打ち Wrist joint strike; also, ko uchi
Kakutō uke 鶴頭受け Wrist joint block; also, ko uke
Kaku tsuki 角突き Square thrust
Kamae 構え Posture of whole body and mind; cf dachi, which refers only to lower body
Kamae te 構えて Command to get into position
Kamakiri 螳螂 Praying mantis, a Japanese symbol of courage and cunning, and a harbinger of good fortune; also tōrō or ōkamakiri mushi
Kami Paper
Kami Hair
Kami Divinity; the gods
Kami no kamae 上の构え Upper body posture
Kaminoke 髪の毛 Hair
Kamiza 上座 "High seat"; the upper side of the dōjō floor
Kamiza 神座 Small, shelf-top shrine in a dōjō
Kamoku 科目 Special class taught by a guest instructor
Kamon 家紋 Family or heraldic symbols; also mon, monsho or mondokoro
Kan Hall or building
Kan Liver, spirit
Kandai 寛大 Generosity, tolerance, leniency
Kan geiko 寒稽古 Winter training
Kanji 漢字 Chinese characters used in Japanese, as contrasted with its syllabries (kana)
Kankū Dai 観空大 Karate kata, “To look at the sky, major"
Kankū Sho 観空小 Karate kata, “To look at the sky, minor”
Kanō Jigorō (1860-1938) 嘉納 治五郎 Founder of jūdō
Kansa Scheidsrechter
Kansetsu 関節 Joint
Kansetsu geri Zijwaartse stamptrap naar het kniegewricht
Kansetsu waza 関節技 Joint locking techniques
Kansha 感謝 Thanks, gratitude, appreciation
Kanzashi Long needle-like hairpin that could be used like a dagger
Kanzō 肝臓 Liver
Kao Face
Kao ate 顔当 Face strike
Kara Empty or void; also pronounced ku
Karada Body; also tai or tei
Karada de oboeru 体 で 覚える Learning with the body; remembering with the body
Karate 空手 "Empty hand"
Karate-dō 空手道 The way of the empty hand
Karate-dō Special Committee An Okinawan committee convened in 1940 by Gen Hayakawa, the Governor of Okinawa, to address the perceived need for karate training kata for children.
Karategi 空手着 or 空手衣 Karate uniform
Karate jutsu 空手術 The art of karate
Karateka 空手家 Exponent of karate
Karate ni sente nashi 空手に 先手 無し "There is no first attack in karate," second of Funakoshi Gichin's 20 precepts
Kara tsuki Straight punch, also choku tsuki
Karō 家老 Clan elders; retainers whose service was long and loyal
Kasumi 霞み Dim, blurry, hazy, mist; crossing of arms to hide setup of technique; feint
Kata 型 or 形 Form
Kata Side, way, direction; single, one of a pair
Katachi Form, shape; correct form
Katai 下腿 Lower leg, lower part of the body, lower limbs
Katai geiko 難い稽古 Hard daily training
Katameru 固める Immobilize
Katana Long sword; also tō
Katana bukuro 刀袋 Sword bag
Katana kaji 刀锻冶 Swordsmith
Katana kake 刀懸け Sword rack
Katana togi 刀砥ざ Sword sharpener
Katana wa bushi no tamashi desu 刀は武士の魂です "The sword is the soul of a samurai"
Katsu Resuscitation methods
Katsu Shout in Zen to express enlightenment; also "browbeat"
Kawa Side; also soku
Kaza 跏坐 Full lotus seated position, also also kekka fuza, zenka fuza, zenkaza, kafuza
Kaze Wind
Keage 蹴上げ Snapping
Kebanashi Snap kick
Keiko 鶏口 Chicken beak
Keikoken 鶏口拳 Chicken beak fist
Keiko 稽古 Practice
Keikogi 稽古着 or 稽古衣 Practice uniform
Keiko hajime 稽古始め First practice of the year
Keiko shōkon 稽古照今 Reflect on the old to understand the new
Keiko soremade 稽古それ迄 Lit "training that is all"; "Finish"
Keikoku Straf, lichte overtreding die bestraft wordt met wazari (half punt) tegen
Keitō 鶏頭. Chicken head wrist
Keitō uke 鶏頭受け Chicken head wrist block
Kekka fuza 結跏趺坐 Full lotus sitting position; also zenka fuza, zenkaza, kafuza, kaza
Kekomi 蹴込み Thrust kick
Kempō 拳法 Boxing; "fist law; Japanese translation of Chinese ch’uan fa or quanfa; also kenpo
Ken Fist
Kendō 剣道 The way of the sword
Kendōgi 剣道着 or 剣道衣 Kendō uniform
Kenichi, Sawai (1903-1988) 健一澤井 A Japanese martial artist and a colonel in the Japanese army, was an associate of Mas Oyama. Founder of Taiki-ken, a Japanese version of yiquan kung fu
Kenjutsu 剣術 The Japanese art of the sword
Kenkō 健康 Health
Kenkōdō 健康道 Way of health
Kenkōtaisō 健康体操 Health exercises
Kenkyo 謙虚 Humility, modesty
Kenpō 剣法 Old name for kendō or kenjutsu
Kenpō 拳法 Boxing; "fist law"; Japanese translation of Chinese ch’uan fa or quanfa; also kempo
Kensei Technique with silent kiai
Kensen 剣先 Tip of the sword
Kenshi 剣士 Swordsman
Kentsui 拳槌 Hammer fist; also tettsui or shutsui
Kentsui tate mawashi uchi 拳槌縦回し打ち Vertical roundhouse hammerfist strike, as in Heian Shodan
Kentsui uchi 拳槌打ち Hammer fist strike; also tettsui uchi or shutsui uchi
Kentsui uke 拳槌受け Hammer fist block
Keppan 血判 Blood oath
Keri 蹴り Kick
Keri waza 蹴り技 Kicking techniques
Kessho-sen Finale
Ketsuryoku 血緑 Effort
Kette 蹴って To kick
Kettō 血統 Blood; bloodline
Ki Spirit; energy; internal energy or force;
Kiai 気合 Spirit unification; the union of breath and energry in a cry
Kiai irete Commando voor het geven van kiai / hierna iedere techniek met kiai
Kiai jutsu 気合術 The art of kiai; art of the spirit
Kiatsu 気圧 Pressure with ki; air pressure
Kiba dachi 騎馬立 Horse stance
Ki ga nukeru 気が抜ける The withdrawal of ki
Kihaku 気迫 Mental strength to face hardship; intensity
Kihon 基本 Basics
Kihon doza Basis oefeningen
Kihon furi uchi waza 基本振り打ち技 Basic swinging strike techniques
Kihon kata 基本形 Basic kata
Kihon kumite 基本組み Basic sparring; prearranged exchange of techniques
Kihon ippon kumite 基本一本組手 Basic/one step sparring
Kihon uchi waza 基本打ち技 Basic strike techniques
Kihon waza 基本技 Basic techniques
Ki in Spiritual rhythm or rhythm of ki
Kikai 機会 "Ocean of energy" of tanden; also kikaitanden
Kiken Opgave tijdens wedstrijd
Kiken jutsu 危険術 Lit "dangerous arts"; mostly empty hand close-quarter arts
Ki ken tai ichi 気剣体ー Unity of spirit, sword and body
Ki ken tai no ichi 気剣体のー致 Spirit (ki), technique (ken) and body (tai) as one
Kikō 氣功 Japanese transliteration of chi kung (qigong); practice of development of ki
Kime 極め Focus
Kimo Liver; also kan
Kimono 着物 Traditional Japanese clothing; lit "thing to wear"
Kin Metal
Kin Muscle
Kinmotsu 禁物 A taboo, a prohibited thing
Kingeri 金蹴 Groin kick
Kinniku 筋肉 Muscle
Ki no nagare 気の流れ Flow of energy
Ki no dashikata The projection of ki
Kintama 金玉 Testicles, groin
Kinteki 金的 Bull's eye; object of desire
Kioihada 競い肌 Manliness, gallantry
Kiotsuke 往症つけ Attention!
Ki o tsukete 気を付けて Traditional swordsman's call to awareness, "Be careful"
Kirikae no kizami maegeri Switchover front leg front kick
Kiritsu 起立 Command to stand up
Kiritsu 規律 Discipline
Kisei 気勢 Fervor, vigor, ardor, spirit
Kishōmon 起請文 Vow taken on entering a classical tradition
Kisoku 気息 Abdominal breathing
Kissaki 切っ先 or 切尖 Point of sword
Kita North; also hoku
Kiza 跪坐 Half-sitting on heels
Kizami maegeri 刻み前蹴り Front leg front kick
Kizami yokogeri kekomi 刻み横蹴り蹴込み Front leg side thrust kick
Kizami tsuki 刻み突き Jab
Kizeme 気攻め Advanced form of seme (psychological pressure) that causes a shift in the mind of the opponent
Kizu Wound; injury; scratch; cut; bruise;
Ko Old
Ko Small, minor
Ko Tiger; also tora
Ko Behind
Mouth
Filial piety
Japanese high quality incense
Throat; also nodo
Back of fist or hand
Kōan 公案 Zen teaching riddle
Ko ashi 小足 Little step
Kōbō ichi 攻防一致 Attack and defense as one
Kobuki 小武器 Minor weapon, one other than the katana, yari or naginata
Kobushi Fist; also ken
Kobudō 古武道 “Old martial way”; use of traditional Okinawan weapons.
Kobujutsu Art of weapons
Kōdō 香道 Way of incense
Kōdōgu 香道具 The tools of kōdō
Kodōgu 小道具 Japanese sword fittings
Kōdōkan 講道館 Orthodox jūdō style or its hombu
Kodoku 孤独 Solitude
Kofū 古風 Old style, old customs
Kogan uke no kamae 睾丸受の構え Ceremonial posture in musubi dachi and hands flat and crossed at groin
Kōgeki 攻撃 Attack, strike, offense; sometimes contrasted to bōgyo, defense
Kōhai 後輩 Junior; complement of sempai or senpai
Kōhei 公平 Fairness, impartiality, justice
Koiguchi 鯉口 Mouth of a sword scabbard
Kojin 個人 Individual
Kojin-shugi Individuele deelname
Koken 弧拳 Wrist; in karate, back of wrist, also tekubi
Koken uke Afweer met het handgewricht
Kokō 虎口 Tiger mouth: the fleshy arc between thumb and index finger
Kokoro Heart, character, attitude (click to listen); also shin
Kokoro gamae 心構え Mental attitude
Kokoro no maai 心の間合い Lit "mental interval" or "interval of the spirit"; maai understood with respect to the mind, heart and/or spirit
Kokoro no me 心の目 "Eyes of the heart," intuition, sensitivity, sixth sense
Kokoro wo nokosazu 心を残さず "Leave nothing of the spirit behind"; give your absolute to every technique
Kokusai 国际 International
Kokusai Budoin 国際武道院 International Martial Arts Federation
Kokusai taikai Internationaal toernooi
Kōkutsu dachi 後屈立 Back stance
Kokyū 呼吸 Breath, breathing; knack, trick, secret (of doing something)
Kokyū hō 呼吸法 Methods of proper breathing
Koma musubi 駒結び Lit "foal knot," square knot used to tie the obi (belt) of modern keikogi
Komekami 米噛み Temple (body part)
Komekami uchi 米噛み打ち Temple strike
Kongoken Okinawan hojo undō apparatus
Konki 根気 Perseverance, patience, persistence
Konnichi wa 今日は Good day, hello
Kontei Narrowed tips of a bō (3/4 inch in diameter)
Koppo 骨法 Knack; essence; bone-breaking methods
Koppōken 骨法拳 Thumb knuckle strike
Kōsa dachi 交差立 Cross-legged stance
Kōsa uke 交差受け Cross-armed block; also jūji uke
Kosha 攻者 Attacker
Koshi Hip; loin; waist
Koshiki 古式 Old style; ancient ritual
Kōshiki hantei 公式判定 Official award
Kōshiza 交指坐 Variation of seiza 正座 in which big toes are crossed
Kossetsu 骨折 Bone fracture
Kosshijutsu 骨質術 Art of muscle striking
Kotai Wissel (van partner of van plek in een rij)
Kotan 枯淡 Elegant simplicity
Kote 小手 Wrist; forearm
Kote 骨質術 Forearm protectors
Kote kitae 小手鍛たえ Forearm forging, toughening of the forearm
Kotsu Bone, skeleton, frame, rib; hard work, knack, trick
Kotsuban 骨盤 Pelvis
Ku Nine; also kyū
Emptiness; sky; the void; also kara
Kuatsu Method of resuscitation
Kubi Neck
Kubi o mawase undō 首を回す運動 Neck circles, junbi undō (warm-up exercise)
Kuchi Mouth
Kuchibiru Lip
Kudoku 功徳 Virtue, pious act
Kūkan 空間 Space, room
Kuma Bear
Kumade Berenklauw
Kumite 組手 or 组手 Sparring
Kumite dachi 组手立ち Fighting stance
Kumo 蜘蛛 Spider
Kung fu 功夫 Chinese martial arts; literally, any kind of cultivated skill
Kun Teaching, precept
Kunren 訓練 Training
Kunyomi 訓読み Japanese or native reading of kanji, in contrast to Onyomi, the Sino-Japanese reading
Kuro Black
Kuro obi 黒帯 Black belt
Kuruma Wheel
Kusazuri 草摺 Tassets; armored thigh protectors
Kusuri Drug or medicine
Kutsu Stoop, bend, crouch, yield, give in
Kuzushi 崩し Breaking the opponent's balance or centeredness
Kuzushi waza 崩し技 Techniques to unbalance
Kyo Empty, void
Kyō Chest, breast, bosom
Kyō Teachings
Kyō Strong, powerful, intense, tough; tolerant; impervious, durable; competent, knowledgeable; force, press, compel, coerce
Kyōiku 教育 Education, teaching, training
Kyōjaku 強弱 Strength, power
Kyojitsu 虚実 Truth and falsehood
Kyojitsu tenkan hō 虚実転換法 Interchanging truth and falsehood
Kyōka 教科 Teachings, curriculum, subject
Kyokai 協会 Association
Kyōkun 教訓 Lesson, precept, moral teaching
Kyokushinkai 極真会 “Society of the ultimate truth,” karate ryū founded by Ōyama Masutatsu
Kyoshi no kamae 踞姿の構え Squat posture; on one knee
Kyōshi 教士 Teaching title above renshi and below hanshi
Kyōshi 教師 Sensei; not the same as kyōshi 教士
Kyōteki 強敵 Powerful enemy
Kyōto 京都 Old capital city of Japan
Kyū Nine; also ku
Kyu Graden (kleur banden) tot 1e Dan (zwarte band)
Kyūdō 弓道 Way of the bow; Japanese archery
Kyūdōjō A dōjō for kyūdō, ideally comprised of shajō, yamichi and matoba
Kyū kumite 級組手 Lower level yakusoku kumite (prearranged sparring)
Kyūshindō 究心道 "The way of longing for knowledge of the fundamental nature of anything"; Japanese theory of budō founded by Abbe Kenshiro
Kyūsho 急所 Pressure point or vital point
Kyūsho mato 急所的 Vital point target
Kyūsho jutsu 急所術 Vital point striking
Kyūsho waza 急所技 Pressure point techniques
Kyūsoku gamae waza 休息構え技 A break inserted into fighting or the sequence of a kata
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
M
Ma Horse; also uma or ba
Maai 間合い Distance between opponents
Ma ai ga to Niet de correcte afstand
Machi dojo Prive Dojo; kleinere / onafhankelijke Dojo
Machigai Fout / vergissing
Mae Front; also zen
Mae ashi geri Traptechniek met het voorste been; letterlijk 'voorbeentrap'
Mae ashi keage Voorwaarts gestrekt opzwaaien van voorste been
Mae ate 前当 Front strike
Mae empi Voorwaartse elleboogtechniek
Mae geri 前蹴り Front kick
Mae geri keage 前蹴り蹴上げ Front snapping kick
Mae geri fumikomi 前蹴り踏み込み Front stamping kick
Mae geri kekomi 前蹴り蹴込み Front thrust kick
Mae hiji ate 前蹴肘当 Front elbow strike
Mae keage Voorwaarts gestrekt opzwaaien van achterste been
Mae mawashi uke Voorwaarts gerichte cirkelvormige afweer met beide armen (als molenwieken)
Mae no sen 前の先 Front attacking; attacking at the instant the opponent thinks about attacking
Mae tobi geri 前飛び蹴り Flying front kick
Mae tobi hiza geri 前飛び膝蹴り Flying front knee strike
Mae ude deai osae uke 前腕出会い押え受け Forearm pressing block
Mae ude hineri uke 前腕捻り受 Forearm twisting block
Maitta 'Ik geef me gewonnen' / 'ik geef op'
Make Verliezer
Makiwara Met stro omwikkelde verticale plank om stoottechnieken op te trainen en knokkels te harden (eeltvorming)
Man 10.000, tienduizend
Manabu 学ぶ To learn, to study in depth, to take lessons in
Manji uke 卍受 Gedan barai with jodan uchi uke or jodan soto yoko te
Mari Shiten 摩利支天 Esoteric Buddhist god of self defense and victory, one of the Jūniten, the twelve dieties
Maru Circle
Marui 丸い or 円い Circle, circular
Mashomen no nekoashi dachi 真正面の 猫足立 Front viewing cat stance
Massugu 真直 Straight ahead
Masutatsu, Ōyama (1923 - 1994) 大山倍達 Born Choi Yeong-Eui 최영의, founder of Kyokushinkai karate-dō.
Mata Thigh, crotch, groin
Matsu 待つ Wait
Matsu Pine tree
Matsunen 末年 The final days; the final years; the last generation
Matte 待って Stop immediately
Marwaru 回る To turn
Mawashi 回し Turn or rotation
Mawashi barai 回し払い Roundhouse (foot) sweep
Mawashi geri 回し蹴り or 迴蹴 Roundhouse kick
Mawashi hiza geri Cirkelvormige knietechniek
Mawashi tobi geri 回し飛び蹴り Flying roundhouse kick
Mawashi hiji ate 回し肘当 Roundhouse elbow strike
Mawashi shuto uchi 回し外手打ち Roundhouse knife hand strike
Mawashi uke 回し受 Roundhouse block
Mawashi tsuki 回し突き Roundhouse punch
Mawatte 回って Command to turn
Me Eye
Medama 目玉 Eyeball
Mei Inscription on a Japanese sword
Meibun 銘文 The inscription in the mei in total, as opposed to just individual kanji
Meigirishi 銘切り師 People who specialized in inscribing mei
Meiji Restoration 明治維新 Time of crucial political transformation in Japan around 1868
Meijin 名人 Master of a Way; grandmaster, lit. "brilliant person"
Meiyo 名 誉 Honor, distinction; status of being worthy of honor
Men Hoofd
Menkyo 免許 Teaching license
Men uchi 面打ち Strike to the head
Mete 目手 Forward hand that can be seen by an opponent
Metsubushi 目溃 Throwing ash in the eyes; crushing the eyes; distracting the opponent
Metsuke 目付け Eye contact; focus
Mi Eyebrow
Mibun 身分 System of rights and responsibilities
Michi Road, way, way of the universe; also, dō
Midare geiko Vrije training
Midori Green
Mienai Niets gezien (scheidsrechtersterm; geen score of verboden techniek gezien)
Migi Right; also u
Migi do 右胴 Right side of body
Migi jigo tai 右自護体 Right defensive posture
Migikae tsuki Jab punch
Migi mawari 右回り Clockwise
Migi shizen tai 右自然体 Right natural posture
Migi waki 右脇 Right side posture
Mika tsuki geri Cirkelvormige aanval met voetzool
Mika tsuki geri uke Cirkelvormige afweer / blokkering met voetzool
Mikkyō 密教 Esoteric Buddhism; lit "secret teachings"
Mimi Ear
Mimitabu 耳たぶ Earlobe
Minami South
Min Zin System of internal exercise similiar to qigong
Minzoku bujutsu 民族武術 Martial arts which existed before the first ryū
Miru 見る To look
Misekake 見せ掛け or 見せかけ Feint or false attack
Misogi Ritual purification
Mitate 見立 New way of seeing
Mitori geiko 見取稽古 "Eyes grab practice"; learning by observing, especially when injured
Miyagi Cadeau, presentje
Miyagi Chōjun (1888-1953) 宮城 長順 Founder of Gōjū ryū 剛柔流 karate-dō
Mizo ochi 鸠尾 Solar plexus
Mizu Water
Mizuhiki 水引 Ribbon-like decoration on a wrapped gift
Mizu nagare tsuki Het stoten in water
Mizo no kokoro Als water reageren; rustig voor de aanval (storm), onstuimig tijdens de aanval (storm) en weer kalm na de aanval (storm)
Modotte 戻って Command to return to original position
Mo ichido もう一度 One more time
Moku Wood
Mokuroku 目録 Catalog or register of techniques or members of a ryū; middle stage of the menkyo rank system, after okuiri
Mokushin 目心 Lit "eye of the mind"; one of two types of metsuke
Mokusō 黙想 Meditation, part of the training of mushin; the call to meditate
Mokusō yamae 黙想止め Command to finish meditation
Mokuso zen Het streven bij langere meditatie is de geest leeg maken; gedachteloos te zijn
Momo Thigh, femur
Momo geri Trap naar dijbeen; UCHI MOMO GERI is de trap naar de binnenzijde van het dijbeen; termen die men vaker voor MOMO GERI gebruikt zijn Mawashi Geri Gedan of Low Kick
Mo motte Meer
Momoyama jidai 桃山時代 Momoyama period, 1573-1599, when samurai began to wear two swords
Mon Family crest; also monsho 紋章, mondokoro 紋所 or kamon 家紋
Mondō 問答 Questions and answers; in Zen, a question to a student for which an immediate answer is demanded; cf koan 公案
Mondōmuyō 問答無用 "Dialogue is useless," "argument is useless," "don't waste your breath"
Mondokoro 紋所 Family crest; also monsho 紋章, mon 紋 or kamon 家紋
Mongai fushutsu 門外不出 Never allowing something to be taken off the premises; a treasure or secret never seeing the light of day; knowledge kept in-house; not to be shown outside
Monjin 門人 Beginner, lit "person at the gate"
Mono no aware 物の哀れ Aesthetic and spiritual concept of desolate poignancy and acceptance of impermanence
Mono uchi 物打 Best part of the sword with which to cut; 1/3 of the blade closest to the kissaki
Monshō 紋章 Family crest; also mon, mondokoro 紋所 or kamon 家紋
Montei 門弟 Accepted disciple, deshi
Montsuki 紋付 Formal kimono
Moro ashi dachi 両足立ち One foot forward stance
Moribana 盛花 "Piled up flowers"; style of kadō ( Japanese flower arrangement)
Morote 諸手 With both hands
Morote barai uke 諸手払受 Augmented lower block
Morote dori 諸手取り Two-handed grab
Morote uchi 諸手打ち Two-handed strike
Morote uke 諸手受 Two-handed or augmented block
Morote tsuki 諸手突き Two-handed punch
Mo sukoshi も少し A little more
Motohazu 本弭 Lower tip of the Japanese bow (Kyūdō)
Moto o 元緒 Main cord of those used to secure a kabuto to the head
Mu Nothingness
Mubobi Straf, onsportief gedrag
Mudansha 無段者 Trainee without dan grade
Mufudakake 武札掛け? A wooden commemorative plaque in a dōjō bearing the names of deceased masters
Muga 無我 No self-consciousness; egolessness
Muga ichi-nen hō 無我一念法 "No self, one thought method"; a form of meditation
Muga mushin 無我無心 No self; no mind; egolessness; being able to react without concern
Mui 無為 Doing nothing; unaffected calmness that does not conflict with nature
Mujō 無常 Uncertainty, impermanence
Mukozune Atemi point in the middle of the shin
Mune Back ridge of sword
Mune tsuki Stoottechniek naar de borst
Munemachi 棟区 or 棟関 Notch at the start of the mune (back ridge of sword)
Mune saki 棟先 Point of the mune (back ridge of sword) at the kissaki (sword tip)
Mune Chest
Munen mushin 無念無心 Striking without conscious concern about the outcome; mindset of non-fixation; state of emptiness
Munen musō 無念無想 No mind
Musanso undō 無酸素運動 Anaerobic exercise
Musha 武者 Warrior, a shortened form of bugeisha
Musha e 武者絵 Warrior print
Musha furi 武者振り Prowess, gallantry; also mushaburi
Musha furitsuku 武者振り付く To jump into the fray
Mushin 無心 Empty mind
Mushin no shin 無心の心 Mind of no mind
Mushotoku 無所得 (Practice seeking) no reward or profit
Musō 無想 No mind
Musubi 結び Knot; union; ending; conclusion; informality
Musubi dachi 結び立 Informal stance, informal attention stance
Mutekatsu Let. overwinning zonder handen. Een overwinning zonder er voor te moeten vechten
Mutō 無刀 No sword
Mutō waza 無刀技 No-sword techniques; waza for an unarmed fighter against an armed attacker
Myaku Vein, pulse, hope
Myō Something mysterious, extraordinary or marvelous, hinted at
Myojo Point one inch below navel, vital point
Myosho Area around the navel
Myo wa kyojitsu no kan ni ari "Essence exists in the void between actions"
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
N
Nafudakake 名札掛け Board in a dōjō showing name and rank
Nagare 流れ Flow, streaming
Nagashi uke 流し受け Sweeping or flowing block, used in the kata Naihanchi
Nagashi tsuki 流し突き Flowing punch
Nagashi waza 流し技 Flowing from one technique to another
Nahate 那覇⼿ Old name for the marterial art from Naha in Okinawa
Naifanchi 内歩進 Karate kata performed in kiba dachi, lit. "internal divided conflict"
Naifanchi dachi 内歩進立 Straddle stance; also kiba dachi
Naiwan 内腕 Inner arm
Naka Center
Nakadaka ippon ken 中高一本拳 Middle finger one knuckle punch; also nakadaka ken
Nakadaka ken 中高拳 Middle finger one knuckle punch; also nakadaka ippon ken
Naka ima 中今 Eternal present, eternal now
Nakamura Tadashi (1942 - ) 中村忠 Japanese karateka, founder of Seidō Juku Karate
Naka ni Naar het midden / middengedeelte
Nakayubi 中指 Middle finger
Nakazumi 中墨 Centerline
Nami ashi 並足 Lit "ordinary foot": walking with smooth sliding steps
Nami ashi geri 波足蹴り Lit "wave foot kick"; block using foot; also namigaeshi
Nami gaeshi 波返し Lit "returning wave"; block using foot ; also nami ashi geri
Nana Seven; also shichi
Nana korobi ya oki 七転八起 "Fall seven times, get up eight"; motto of perseverance
Naname 斜め Diagonal
Naname age empi uchi 斜め 揚猿臂打ち Diagonally rising elbow strike; 45 degree elbow in kickboxing
Naore 直れ Command to rest
Naoshite 直して Command to correct stance or position
Naotte 直って Command to rest, relax, or return to stance
Narande 並んで Command to line up
Nebarizuoi 粘強 Persevering or tenacious
Neko ashi dachi 猫足立 Cat stance, lit "cat foot stance"
Nesshin 熱心 Enthusiasm, zeal
Newaza 寝技 Groundwork techniques
Ni Two
Ni bon 2-stap
Nidan 二段 Second level
Nidan geri 二段蹴り Double kick
Nidan waza 2-staptechnieken
Nihon 日本 Japan also, Nippon
Nihon fū 日本風 Japanese style
Nihon go 日本語 Japanese language
Nihon jin 日本人 Japanese people
Nihon jinron 日本人論 Lit "theories or discussions about the Japanese"; "often used by the Japanese to describe or rationalize their sense of uniqueness" (Lowry, The Karate Way)
Nihon Karate Kyokai 日本唐手協会 Japan Karate Association, organization for Shōtōkan karate
Nihon ken tsuki Twee vinger knokkelstoot
Nihon nukite 二本貫手 Two finger spear hand
Nihon nukite tsuki Speerhandtechniek met 2 vingers
Nihon shobu Gevecht dat wordt beslist na 2 punten
Nihon teien 日本庭園 Japanese garden
Nihon tsuki Dubbele vuiststoot, twee keer achtereen stoten (links-rechts of rechts-links)
Ni i Finalist
Nijiri ashi 躙り足 Gliding both feet forward or backward (type of tai sabaki)
Nijiri guchi 躙り口 or 躙戸 Entrance to a chashitsu, or tea hut.
Niju kun 二十訓 The twenty precepts of karate, by Funakoshi Gichin
Niju shiho 二十四步 "24 steps," Karate kata; a Chince books putting forth 24 moral principles
Ni kai sen Tweede ronde
Nikutai 肉体 Body, flesh
Ninja 忍者 Feudal Japanese spy
Ninjō 人情 Human feelings; compassion
Ninjutsu 忍術 "Art of invisibility"; martial art of espionage
Nintai 忍耐 Patience, perseverance, endurance
Nippon 日本 Japan; also, Nihon
Nippon Budōkan 日本武道館 Large budō hall in Tōkyō, often shortened to Budōkan
Nippon Karate Kyokai 日本空手協会 Japanese Karate Association, founded 1 May 1949
Nippon-tō 日本刀 Japanese sword
Nishi 西 West
Nitobe Inazō (1862-1933) 新渡戸稲造 Author of Bushidō.
Niwa Garden also tei
Brain
No Van
Nobashi Uitgestrekt / uitgerekt
Nobori Japanese banners or long narrow flags denoting units within an army
Nodo Throat
Nogareru 逃れる To escape
No naka ni Van binnen; binnenin
Nōryoku 能力 Ability, capacity
Noshi 熨斗 Paper wrapping for cash given as a gift or payment
Nukite 贯手 Spear hand
Nyūanshin 初心 Beginner's mind; also pronounced shoshin
Nyūmonsha 入門者 Beginner
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
O
Ō Major, great, large
Obi Belt
Obi musubi 帯結び Belt knot
Ochitsuki 落ち着き Calm, composure
Odeko お凸 Forehead (colloquial)
Ō harai no gi 大祓の儀 Purification ceremony; also harai no gi 祓の儀; related to misogi 禊
Ohayō お早う Good morning
Ohayō gozaimasu お早う御座います Good morning
Oi waza 追い技 Chasing or following strikes attacking the opponent as s/he retreats
Oi tsuki 追い突き Lunge punch; front punch, junzuki 順突き
Oji Reactie
Oji waza Reactie(s) op ontvangende technieken (aanvallen); zoals blokkeringen / counters
Ōkakumaku 横隔膜 Diaphragm
Ōkamakiri mushi 大螳螂虫 Praying mantis, a Japanese symbol of courage and cunning, and a harbinger of good fortune; also kamakiri or tōrō
Oki i Groot
Okinawa 沖縄 Birthplace of karate, het eiland ten zuiden van Japan. Vroeger onafhankelijk, nu maakt het deel uit van het keizerrijk Japan. Karate komt oorspronkelijk uit Okinawa; de technieken oorspronkelijk uit China
Oku Secret or deep
Okuden 奥傳 Inner or secret teachings
Okugi 奥義 Secret techniques; secrets, esoterica, arcana
Okuiri 奥入 Introduction to the secrets; lowest level of the menkyo rank system
Okunote 奥の手 Left hand, upper hand, secret skills, trump card, mystery, last resort
Oku sandan An old grade marking a dividing line between junior (1-3 dan) and senior (4+) yudansha
Omote Front, surface, outside, entering or obvious
Omote waza 表技 Outside or manifest techniques; obvious techniques that can be displayed in public
On Obligation, favor, benefit, something requiring repayment
Onaji waza 同じ技 "Same technique"
Onaka お腹 Abdomen, belly, stomach
Onegai shimasu お願いします "I make a request" or "I ask of you," said when bowing and initiating practice
Onegai otsukaresamadeshita お願いお疲れ様でした Thank you used after training with a partner
Oni fumi komi Stamp van de duivel. De stamptechniek der Sumo worstelaars (oa voor aanvang wedstrijd om de duivels te verjagen)
Oniken 鬼拳 One knuckle punch using forefinger; also hitosashi ipponken
Onimusha 鬼武者 Daredevil warrior
Onjin 恩人 Benefactor
Onko chishin 温故知新 "To search for the old is to understand the new"
Onyomi 音読み Sino-Japanese reading of kanji, in contrast to Kunyomi, the Japanese or native reading
Oranda オランダ Holland, The Netherlands
Orei お礼 Respect; etiquette; bowing
Ori Break
Orishiku 折り敷く Kneeling
Oroshi 下ろし Downward or descending
Oroshi uchi 下ろし打ち Downward strike
Osae Drukken, druk uitoefenen; balans verstoren
Osae komi waza 押え込技 "Pressing technique," pinning technique
Osae uchi 押え打ち Pressing strike
Osae uke 押え受け Pressing block
Osame tō 納め刀 Command to place sword in obi
Ō sensei 大先生 Great teacher
Ōsode 大袖 Armor for upper arms and shoulders
Osu 押忍 Karate salutation
Groet (uitspraak is OESH); ook als antwoord op vraag van leraar, als teken dat je het begrepen hebt; binnen het Kyokushin is etiquette van groot belang, je dient elkaar met OSU te groeten, ook bij het betreden of verlaten van sportschool of sportzaal
Osu! Arigato gosai mashita Dank u (beleefd), bijvoorbeeld als antwoord op onderstaande vraag of naar leraar aan het einde van de les
Osu! Yoroshiku onegai shimasu Groet nieuwe partner
Otagai Collega, trainingsgenoot, elkaar
Otagai ni arigato gosai mashite Groet / dankwoord naar alle aanwezigen / trainingsgenoten
Otagai ni rei Iedereen groeten / alle aanwezigen groeten
Otomo お供 Escort to a sensei
Otoshi 落とし Drop, fall, come down
Otoshi hiji ate 落とし肘当て Downward elbow strike; also otoshi empi uchi; cf sok sub (chopping elbow)
Otoshi uchi 落とし打ち Downward strike
Otoshi uke 落とし受け Dropping block
Otoshi tsuki 落とし突き Dropping punch; downward punch
Otsukare samadeshita 御疲れ様でした "Good job today and goodbye," "Thank you for your tiredness from effort"
Oya sumi nasai Goedenacht; welterusten
Oya yubi ken 親指拳 Thumb fist
Oya yubi ippon ken 亲指一本拳 Thumb knuckle punch
Ōyō 応用 Lit "practical use," fighting applications drawn from kata; bunkai, by contrast, means "to take apart," "to break down" or "to analyze"
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
P
Pinan 平安 Karate kata series, lit. “Peaceful, tranquil," Heian
Pinan Dai 平安大 "Great Pinan," a form combining all 5 individual Pinan kata into one long continuous form
Potsai 披塞 "To Penetrate a Fortress," karate kata; also Bassai, Passai or Patsai
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
R
Ran bu ho Shadow boxing
Randori 乱捕り Free practice
Rei Bow, etiquette, thanks, gratitude
Reigi 礼儀 Rituals of etiquette
Reigisahō 礼儀作法 Etiquette
Reigi no renshū 礼儀の練習 Learning to respect each other
Reihō 礼法 Etiquette, rules of etiquette
Reiki 霊気 Healing art by laying-on of hands
Reikishi Geschiedenis
Reisansoke 礼三息 "Three step breathing method," proper breathing during a bow
Reishiki 礼式 Etiquette
Ren Forge, temper, refine, polish, train
Rendaku 連濁 "Sequential voicing": voicing of the initial consonant of the non-intial portion of a compound or prefixed word.
Ren hanko 連反攻 Counter attack
Renkei waza 連係技 Connection techniques
Renkō 錬功 Skills acquired through hard training; feats of practice
Renko ho Methods of immobilizing opponent by blocking or locking her/his arms
Renma 练磨 Polishing, training
Renmei 連盟 Federation
Renoji dachi レの字立 L-shaped stance
Renraku waza 連盟技 Combination techniques
Rensei Oefentoernooi / toernooi voor beginners / om ervaring op te doen
Renshi 錬士 Title below kyōshi and hanshi
Renshū 練習 Practice, training
Rentai hō 連体法 Physical education, one of Kanō's three principles
Renzoku 連続 Continuous; without count (as in performing a kata)
Renzoku waza 連続技 Continuous techniques
Renzuki 連突 Multiple punches
Ri Truth, principle, justice
Riai 理合 Harmony of principles
Ri ari Root form of a technique
Ri gi ittai 理技一体 Theory and practice as one
Rigyō kenbi 理業兼備 Exercise without thinking is useless
Riken 裡拳 Backfist, also uraken
Ritsudō 律动 Rhythm, feeling of rhythm
Ritsu rei 立礼 Standing bow; also tachi rei
Ritsuzen 立禅 Standing meditation
Rokkotsu 肋骨 Rib
Roku Rib
Roku Six
Rokushakubō 六勺 棒 Long staff; six foot staff from Okinawa; also bō
Rōnin 浪人 Masterless samurai; literally, "wave men"
Samurai zonder werkgever of leider (DAIMYO); werkte vaak in ruil voor voedsel en onderdak Om niet te verhongeren gingen vele Ronin als landwerker (boer) werken en verloren daarmee hun Samurai status
Rōshi 廬至 Title for a Zen master; lit "old teacher" or "venerable teacher"
Ryaku Abbreviation, omission, shorten
Ryō Both; two-handed
Ryoji 療治 Healing art
Ryō ken koshi gamae 両拳腰構え Both fists at hips posture, as in Pinan Sandan; also ryō ken ryō koshi gamae 両拳両腰構え
Ryoku Power; also chikara
Ryōmi Intense, ongoing, critical reflection on the self
Ryō shō jūji uke 両掌十字受け Two palm cross block
Ryo te Beide handen
Ryo te dori Met 2 handen, iedere hand pakt een hand van de tegenstander
Ryo te kubitori Met 2 handen, iedere hand pakt een pols van de tegenstander
Ryū School, style, literally "stream"
Ryū 竜 or 龍 Dragon
Ryūgi 流技 Lit "technique of the ryū"; method or style of technique; substyle
Ryūha 流派 Stream sect; branch school or system
Ryūtoken 竜头拳 Dragon head fist
 
S
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
S
Sa Left also hidari
Sabaki 捌き Movement; handling; decisive movement; dynamics
Sabaki 裁き To judge
Sabi Solitariness or aloneness embraced and accepted; elegant simplicity; patina; an antique look
Sabi shiori 寂栞 Melancholy aloneness; the art of being alone
Sadō 茶道 The way of tea; also chadō
Sageo 下緒 Sword knot, cord used to secure a katana in the obi
Saguru 探る To probe or grope
Sahō 左方 Left direction
Sai Kobudō weapon; trident with long middle prong
Saibu 細部 Details
Saijutsu 釵術 Art of the sai
Saika tanden 最下丹田 Center of the body, energy focus point below navel
Saikeirei 最敬礼 Lit "most respectful bow"; kneeling bow with forehead touching the floor
Saiku 細工 Craftsmanship, work; tactics, trick
Saishu encho-sen Verlengde finale (bij onbeslist)
Sainō 才能 Inherent ability or latent talent
Sakki 殺気 Thirst for blood; killing mood; intuition or sensitivity to aggession from others
Sakotsu 鎖骨 Clavicle
Sakotsu uchi 锁骨打ち Clavicle strike
Sakotsu uchikomi 锁骨打ち込み Clavicle driving strike
Sakusen 作戦 or 策戦 Skill in strategy
Samurai Feudal Japanese professional warrior, class of bushi, literally, "One who serves"
Samegawa 鮫皮 Shark or ray skin used as a wrapping for a sword handle
-san さん Common Japanese honorific suffix; like "Mr." or "Ms.", but never used in reference to oneself
San Three
Sanbon Three times
Sanbom kumite Driestaps oefening basis sparren
Sanbon shobu 三本勝負 Three point tournament match
Sanbon tsuki 三本突き Three consecutive punches, often as a combination of jōdan, chudan and gedan
Sanchin 三戰 or 三進 or 参戦 Karate kata; lit. "three battles"
Sanchin dachi 三戦立 Three battles stance; hourglass stance
Sanchin kitei 三戰鍛たえ Conditioning or striking the body in Sanchin kata; whole body conditioning
Sanchin shime Testing conditioning and strength in Sanchin kata
Sandan Third
Sankai sen Third round
Sankaku geri Driehoektrap; een trap met wreef of scheen, tussen Mae Geri en Mawashi Geri in
Sanmai 三昧 Self-effacement, concentration, absorption
Sankaku 三角 Triangle
Sanshu no Jingi 三種の神器 Three sacred treasures, the imperial regalia of Japan: the sword 草薙劍 (kushinagi) , the jewel 八尺瓊曲玉 (yasakani no magatama) and the mirror 八咫鏡 (yata no kagami)
Sasae 支え To prop up
Sasae hiji ate 支肘当 Supported elbow strike
Sasae uke 支受け Supported block
Sashiai 差し合い "Reciprocal interference"; less is more
Sashite 差し手 Raising of the hand to strike, grab or block
Satori 悟り Enlightenment
Satsui 殺意 Murderous intent
Satsujiga 殺自我 Killling the ego
Saya Scabbard
Sayonara 左様なら Good bye
Sayū 左右 Left and right
Sayū barai uke 左右払受 Double lower block
Sayū uchi 左右打ち Left and right strike
Sayū uke 左右受け Left and right blocks; simultaneous, identical blocks with both arms
Sayū tsuki 左右突 Left and right punches; simultaneous, identical punches with both arms
Se Back; back of body
Sebone 背骨 Thoracic spine or dorsal spine
Sei Natural, true, correct, righteous
Sei Character, nature, temperament, sex, gender; also shō
Sei Sincerity, a true heart, faithfulness, truth, fact
Sei Swear, oath, vow, promise
Sei Light, easy, insignificant, trifling, flippant
Sei chū dō 静中動 State in which the body appears to be still, but the mind is fully ready to respond; contrasted to dō chū sei
Sei chu sen 正中線 Median line; correct middle line, center line
Seigan 誓願 Oath, vow, pledge; vow training
Seigan 正眼 Natural step
Seigi 正義 Justice, right, righteousness, correct meaning
Seigyo 制御 Control
Seihōkei 正方形 Square
Seijitsu 誠実 Good faith, honest, faithful, truthful, sincere
Seikaku 正確 Accuracy, precision, exactitude; exact, precise, correct
Seikaku ni 正確に Properly
Seikan 静観 Calm, composed, observant temperament
Seika tanden 臍下丹田 Lower abdomen; center of the abdomen; lit "the red rice paddy below the navel"
Seiken 正拳 Front of fist or forefist
Seiken mawashi tsuki 正拳回し突き Roundhouse punch
Seiken tsuki 正拳突き Basic punch
Seiki 正気 Right spirit; true heart; true character; vital life force
Seikitsui 脊椎 Spine, vertebra
Seimo Eye socket
Seiretsu 斉列 Command to line up
Seiri 整理 Sorting, arrangement, adjustment, regulation
Seiri taisō 整理体操 Cool down exercises, exercises after class, "back to normal" exercises
Seishi 誓詞 Pledge by student upon joining a school, at one time made in blood
Seishin 正心 Proper mind; right spirit; spirit
Seishin ryoku 精神力 Spiritual/moral strength
Seishin shūyō 精神修養 Spritual cultivation, mental discipline
Seishin tanren 精神鍛錬 Spiritual forging
Seishitsu 性質 Nature, property, disposition
Seitei 制定 Establishment
Seitō 正統 Orthodox, legitimate, traditional
Seito 生徒 Student
Seiza 正座 Literally correct sitting”; also, 静坐, “still sitting”; act of kneeling into seiza is called chakuza
Seiza shite Kniezit op volgorde van graad
Sekai 世界 World
Sekai taitai Wereldkampioen(schap)
Sekiwan uke 隻腕受け Blocks with one arm
Sekizui 脊髄 Spinal column
Sekkotsu 接骨 Bone setting
Seme Psychological pressure (on an opponent)
Seme guchi 攻め口 "Attack mouth," an opening or vulnerability
Semete 攻め手 Attacker; offense, method of attack
Semete 攻め手 Pushing or pressing hand
Sempai 先輩 Senior; also senpai; cf kōhai
Sempai ni rei Groet aan oudere, gevorderde, hoogst aanwezige leerling
Sen Initiative; the decisive moment when a killing action is initiated; point, tip, end; ahead, future; prior, previous
Senaka 背中 Back (body part)
Senbatsu taitai Eliminatietoernooi
Seni soshitsu Ontbreken vechtlust
Senjitsu no keiko tan to ii banjitsu no keiko rento yu 千日の稽古を鍛とし 万日の稽古を練とす "1000 days to forge the spirit, 10,000 to polish it" (Miyamoto Musashi)
Sen jutsu 先術 Tactics
Sen ken "See first"; anticipate
Sen no sen 先の先 Early advantage (tai no sen: direct; yu no sen: indirect)
Senpai 先輩 Senior; also sempai; cf kōhai
Senryaku 戦略 Strategy
Sensei 先生 Teacher, literally, “one who has gone before"
Sensei ni rei 先生に礼 Command to bow to the sensei
Sen sen no sen 先々の先 Highest form of initiative; taking control early; pre-emptive intiative
Sente 先手 Initiative; literally, "first hand"
Seoi 背負 Upper back or back of shoulders
Seppuku 切腹 Formal term for ritual suicide by disembowelment; more colloquially, hara kiri
Sesshin 接心 or 摂心 or 攝心 Lit "gathering the mind," intensive training, esp. in Zen
Sesshō 殺生 The destruction of life, cruelty, brutality
Sesshu rei Type of bow
Setsuzokku 接続 Fluidity and continuity
Sha Person, e.g. bugeisha
Shajō 射場 Shooting hall, part of a kyūdōjō; other parts are the yamichi and matoba
Shakkei 借景 Lit "borrow or lend scene"; prinicple of incorporating the background landscape into a garden or architecture; older term is ikedori
Shakoken 蝦古拳 Open-handed palm strike
Shi Four
Shi Death
Shi Expert; learned man; magnificent man, samurai
Shiai 試合 Competition
Shiai geiko 試合-稽古 Competition practice which may also be judged
Shiai jō 試合場 Place where competition takes place
Shiatsu 指圧 Japanese acupressure; finger massage
Shibu 支部 Branch, subdivision
Shibucho 支部長 Branch chief
Shibui 渋い Elegant
Shibui mono 渋い物 Elegant things
Shibumi 渋味 or 下味 Good taste, astringency, refinement, effortless perfection, elegant simplicity; poise
Shichi Seven
Shidō 士道 Ethical system of the bushi; also bushidō 武士道; sometimes, "the way of the gentleman," as less radical than bushidō
Shidō 指導 Guidance, leadership
Shidō geiko 指導稽古 "Way person practice," learning by teaching
Shidōin 指導員 Assistant or intermediate level instructor; instructor of technical aspects of karate
Shidōsha 指導者 Leader; assistant instructor
Shidōshi 指導士 Teacher of the warrior way
Shihan 師範 Teacher of teachers
Shihan dai 師範代 Assistant instructor
Shihanke 師範家 Family instructor. Actual teacher, as distinguished from the sōke, who may be a non-teaching hereditary leader for a ryū
Shihan ni rei Groeten aan de meester leraar (buiging naar de meester / hogere leraar )
Shihō 四方 Four directions
Shihon nukite 四本貫手 Four finger spear hand
Shihon nukite chūdan tate tsuki 四本中段縦突き Middle level vertical spear hand, as in Pinan Nidan and Sandan
Shikaku 四角 or 死角 or 刺客 Square; "Dead corner," blind spot, vulnerable angle; Assassin, killer, slayer, hit man, stabber
Shikanken 指環拳 Strike with the second knuckles of the hand
Shiken 試験 Examination, test, study, trial
Shiken rei 指建礼 Formal kneeling bow in the presence of kōhai; also shiken rei
Shiken zarei 指建座礼 Formal kneeling bow in the presence of kōhai; also shiken rei
Shiki 士気 or 式 or 指揮 or 私記 Fighting spirit, morale; Ceremony, form, style; Command; Private record
Shikin haramitsu dai ko myō "In every instance there is the possibility of enlightenment"
Shik-kaku Diskwalificatie, onsportief gedrag
Shiko dachi 四股立 Square stance; sometimes called horse stance
Shime 絞め Choke; strangle (shime)
Shimoseki 下席 Lower seat of the dōjō, where students line up facing teachers
Shimoza 下座 Lower place of honor, to left of shinzen
Shin 心 or 神 or 身 or 真 Heart, will, mind, spirit; also, kokoro; God, spirit, supernatural being, kami; Body, self; also mi; Real, actual, true, authentic, genuine, also makoto
Shinai 竹刀 Bamboo sword used in kendō
Shinayaka 柔軟 Soft, pliable, flexible, supple, elastic, pliant, lithe
Shinden 神殿 Temple or sacred place; the most sacred building in a Shintō shrine (also honden 本殿 "main building)
Shingan 心眼 Rooted in Zen philosophy, it means "mind’s eye" or "heart's eye," and refers to the ability to sense an opponent's thoughts or feelings via an inner sense.
Shingi 心技 Spirit and technique
Shin gi tai 心技体 Spirit, technique and body
Shin gi tai ichi 心技体一 Spirit, technique and body as one
Shinjin Ichinyo 心身一如 Oneness of body and mind
Shinjutsu 鍼術 Acupuncture; also harijutsu
Shinkei 神経 Nerve (body part)
Shinken shōbu kumite 真剣勝負組手 Full contact Kyokushinkai knockdown tournament allowing normally prohibited punches to the face (with light gloves)
Shin ki ryoku itchi 心気力ー致 Unity of mind, spirit and technique
Shinkū 真空 Vacuum, emptiness, void, hollow
Shinkū musō 真空無想 Emptiness of no mind; serene, untroubled mental and spiritual place (kyūdō); true emptiness without chracteristics (Zen painting)
Shinkyokū 深呼吸 Deep breathing, final junbi undō (warm-up exercise)
Shinobu 忍ぶ To endure; to conceal oneself, to hide
Shinpai 心配 Anxiety, worry, concern, care
Shinpan (-in) Scheidsrechter / jurylid
Shinri 心理 Mental state, psychology
Shinsa 審査 Grading or examination
Shinshin 心身 Mind and body; Stopped or fixed mind; mind open to attack
Shinshin to itsu 心身統一 Unification of mind and body
Shinshin shūgyō 心身修行 Mind and body training
Shintai 身体 or 神体 or 進退 Human body; Divine body; Movement; course of action; advance or retreat
Shintai sōsa 身体操作 Proper body mechanics
Shintaidō 新体道 "New body way," a body movement art derived from karate-dō
Shintō 神道 "The way of the Gods"; ancient religion of Japan
Shinyō 信用 Trust, confidence, faith, belief
Shinza 神座 Spirit seat; also, kamiza
Shinza ni rei 神座に礼 Command to bow towards the shrine
Shinzen 神前 Altar or shrine
Shinzen ni rei 神前に礼 Command to bow towards the shrine
Shinzō 心臓 Heart (organ)
Shiri Buttocks, hips
Shiro Castle
Shiro or Shiroi 白 or 白い White; also haku , byaku
Shiro no kachi Wit heeft gewonnen (dit roept meestal de scheidsrechter)
Shisei 至誠 or 姿勢 Sincerity, devotion; Posture, attitude
Shiseidō 資生堂 The way of femininity
Shishō 師匠 Martial arts instructor
Shiso 始祖 Founder or originator
Shita Under, below, beneath, inferior ; also ge
Shitabaki 下履き Pants; underpants; outdoor shoes
Shita kara 下から From below
Shita tsuki 下突き or 振突 Uppercut
Shite 仕手 Person responding to an attack by the uke; also tori or nage
Shitei 師弟 Relationship of teacher and student
Shitei waza 指定技 Set form in grading or competition
Shitōken 指刀拳 Thumb tip strike; also bōshiken
Shitsu Knee
Shitsu kansetsu 膝関節 Knee joint
Shitsuga Natural talent or abilities which cannot be taught
Shitsuken 膝腱 Hamstring
Shizen 自然 Nature; natural or spontaneous
Shizen hontai 自然本体 Natural posture; also shizentai
Shizen tai 自然体 “Natural body stance”; natural stance, hachiji dachi; also shizenhontai
Shizentai dachi 自然体立 Same as shizentai
Shizen tai hidari or migi Natuurlijke stand met linker en rechter been voor
Shizen teki 自然的 Naturalness and reverence for nature
Shizoku 死側 Dead side; vulnerable angle, usually the "outside" flank;
Shizoku 士族 Warriors, samurai
Sho 初 or 暑 or 小 First or new; Hot; Minor, little or small
Shō Palm
Shōbu 勝負 Victory or defeat; match, contest, game, bout ; cf shinken shōbu, a contest with real swords or life-and-death combat
Shobu kumite (ippon of sanbon) 1 puntsgevecht (ippon) of drie puntsgevecht (sanbon)
Shochū geiko 暑中 稽古 Midsummer training
Shodai 初代 Founder, first generation
Shodō 書道 The way of the brush (calligraphy)
Shodōka 書道家 Exponent of shodō
Shofu Kyūsho, side of neck; also dokosen
Shogi 将棋 Japanese chess
Shōgun 将軍 Absolute military leader in feudal Japan
Shōjiki 正直 Honesty; straight from the heart
Shōkai 紹介 Letter of introduction
Shōkaijō 紹介状 Letter of introduction
Shomen 正面 Front
Shomen geri 正面蹴り Front kick
Shomen ni rei Buiging / buig naar voren
Shō osae uke 掌押え受け Pressing block with palm, as executed with tate nukite in Pinan Nidan and Sandan
Shōsei 勝 声 "Victorious voice"; type of kiai
Shoshin 初心 Beginner's mind; also, nyuanshin
Shoshinsha 初心者 Beginner
Shōtei 掌底 Palm heel; also teisho
Shotei uchi Slag met open handpalm
Shotei uke Afwering met open handpalm
Shubaku 手白 Unarmed close combat
Shubō 手棒 Forearm, lit "arm stick"; also wantō
Shūchū 集中 Concentration
Shūchū ryoku 集中力 Power of concentration
Shūgeki 襲撃 Attack, charge, raid
Shugo 守護 Protection or safeguard
Shūgō 集合 Command to line up or come together for instruction
Shūgyō 修業 The pursuit of knowledge; cultivation of the mind and spirit
Shūgyōsha 修行者 One practicing shūgyō; notable examples: Ōyama Masutatsu and Ueshiba Morihei; one who trains diligently
Shuhai 手背 Back of hand
Shu Ha Ri 守 破 離 Japanese martial art concept which describes the stages of learning to mastery:
Shu (守) "protect", "obey"—traditional wisdom—learning fundamentals, techniques, heuristics, proverbs
Ha (破) "detach", "digress"—breaking with tradition—detachment from the illusions of self
Ri (離) "leave", "separate"—transcendence—there are no techniques or proverbs, all moves are natural, becoming one with spirit alone without clinging to forms; transcending the physical
Shukō 手甲 Back of hand; also haishu 背手
Shūkyō 宗教 Spiritual life; religion; faith
Shūren 修練 Training, discipline, drill; also tanren
Shuri te 首里手 Okinawan karate practiced in the village of Shuri.
Shusha 守者 Defender, cf. kosha 攻者, attacker
Shūshi 修士 Master
Shūshin 修身 Ethics, training, morals
Shushin Scheidsrechter
Shushin ni rei Groet / buiging naar scheidsrechter
Shuso 宗祖 Founder or originator; cf shiso
Shutō 手刀 Knife or sword hand; also tegatana; also 外手
Shutō age uke 手刀揚げ受け Rising knife hand block
Shutō teisho uke 手刀底掌受け Knife hand palm heel block
Shutō uchi 手刀打ち Knife hand strike
Shutō uke 手刀受け Knife hand block
Shutsui 手槌 Hammerfist, lit "hand hammer," also tettsui or kentsui
Sōchin dachi 壮鎮立ち Rooted stance
Onbeweeglijke stand
Sode Sleeve
Sodeguchi 袖口 Cuff or wristband
Sōden 相伝 Inherited teachings
Sōdensho 相伝書 Book or scroll of inherited teachings
Sōgō 総合 Comprehensive or composite
Sōgō budō 総合武道 Comprehensive or composite martial way, practicing several arts or weapons
Sōgō bujutsu 総合武術 Comprehensive or composite martial art, practicing several arts or weapons
Sōgō kakutōgi 総合格闘技 Mixed martial arts
Sōhei 僧兵 Buddhist warrior monks
Sōji 掃除 Cleaning the dōjō; cleaning, sweeping, dusting, scrubbing, mopping
Sōke 宗家 Headmaster of a style (need not be the founder)
Soku Foot; also ashi
Soku 速 or 側 Fast, quick, speed, velocity; Side, neighbourhood, vicinity, proximity
Sokudo 速道 Speed
Sokuhai 足背 Instep, top (back) of foot
Sokumen 側面 Side, flank, aspect
Sokushinza 足心坐 Seiza with the feet crossed
Sokusō 足爪 Tips of toes
Sokutei 足底 Sole of foot or bottom of heel
Sokutei mawashi uke 足底回し受け Roundhouse sole block
Sokutō 足刀 "Foot sword," outer edge of foot; abbreviation of sokutō geri, side kick
Sokutō geri 足刀蹴り Side kick
Sokuyakuken 足躍拳 Strike using the heel of the foot
Sonkei 尊敬 Respect
Sonkyo 蹲踞 Traditional start to a fight or drill, kneeling or squatting (kendo)
Sorashi Feint
Sōsai 総裁 President or director-general; title given to Ōyama Masutatsu, founder of Kyokushinkai karate
Sōshu rei 双手礼 Basic everyday bow in Japan
Sōtai renshū 相対練習 Partner practice
Soto Outside; outer; also gai
Soto furi uchi 外振り打ち Outward swinging strike
Soto hachiji dachi 外八字立 Hachiji dachi (natural stance) with toes pointed outward
Soto kote 外小手 Outside of forearm
Soto sune uke Scheenbeenblok van buiten naar binnen
Soto ude uke Afweer binnenkant voorarm
Soto uke 外受け Outer block
Suburi 素振り Repetitive solo practice with bō or bokken
Sudōri 素通り Momentum; passing through without stopping
Suhada bujutsu 素肌武術 Lit "naked martial arts," techniques done in street clothes
Suibokuga 水墨画 Ink painting; also sumi-e
Suigetsu 水月 Solar plexus, lit. "water moon"
Suji Line of muscle or nerve
Sujikabuto 筋兜 Armored helmet, lit "ribbed helmet"
Sūjiku 枢軸 Axis or pivot
Sukima 隙間 or 透き間 An opening or gap in kamae 構え
Sukoshi 少し A little
Sukui 救い Help, aid, relief
Sukui te 掬手 Scooping block; also sukui uke
Sukui uke Onderscheppende afweer
Sumi Corner
Sumi Ink, ink stick
Sumi-e 墨絵 Ink painting; also suibokuga 水墨画
Sumimasen 済みません "Excuse me"; "I'm sorry"
Sumō 相撲 Japanese wrestling
Sunao 素直 Obedient, meek, unaffected, honest, frank; sometimes used in respect to a simple and direct bunkai
Sun dome 寸止め To arrest a technique just before contact with a target
Sune 胫 or 脛 Shin
Sune uke Blok met het scheenbeen
Suri ashi 摺り足 Gliding movement beginning with forefoot
Suso Hem, bottom or skirt of a uniform
Susuharai 煤払い Traditional Japanese end-of-the-year cleaning, as in a dōjō
Suwari 座り Sit
Suwari taiso 座り体操 Sitting exercises; seated stretching
Suwari waza 座り技 Seated technique
Suwatte 座って Command to sit or kneel
Suwatte kudasai 座ってください Request to sit down
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
T
Tabudō geiko 他武道稽古 Practicing other martial arts
Tachi 太刀 Sword
Tachi (also Dachi) Stance
Tachi kata Vorm(en) van standen
Tachi rei 立礼 Standing bow, also ritsu rei
Tachi waza Verzamelnaam voor alle standen
Tadashi katachi 正し形 Correct form
Tai Body
Tai atari Lichamelijk contact
Tai chikara 体力 Using external muscle power
Tai jiquan 太极拳 One of the three most well-known styles of internal kung fu; also, tai chi chuan. (Chinese)
Tai ji tu 太极图 The diagram of yin and yang
Tai ju Gewicht
Tai ju hantei Beslissing door gewicht (lichtste persoon wint)
Tai jutsu 体術 Art of unarmed combat; lit "body skill" or "body art"; another name for jūjutsu
Tai kai Toernooi
Tai kai Samenkomst / samenkomen / grote ontmoeting. Een sociaal gebeuren, zoals tijdens een seminar, toernooi of zomerkamp
Tai ken no hokyō undō 体幹の補強運動 Core training
Tai ki bansei 大器晩成 "Great talents mature late," "To achieve greatness late in life"
Tai kiken 太気拳 "Great energy boxing," Japanese version of kung fu founded by Sawai Kenichi; also Taiki shisei kempō
Tai ki shisei kempō 太気至誠拳法 Japanese version of kung fu founded by Sawai Kenichi; also Taiki-ken
Tai ko Ceremoniïele drum die in Japan wordt gebruikt bij openingceremonies van toernooien en in Dojos voor de training. Er zijn ook Taiko (muziek) demonstraties
Tai ko Oog in oog staan met een tegenstander
Tai kyoku 太極 "First cause," karate kata
Tai nin 体認 Body recognition
Tai no sen 待の先 To wait for the initiative
Tai no shinsuku Physical expansion and contraction, as in kata
Tai o mae ni taosu undō 体を前に倒す運動 Waist scoop, junbi undō (warm-up exercise)
Tai ra Family of warriors; enemies of the Minamoto 源
Tai ryō 体量 Body weight
Tai ryoku 体力 Physical strength
Tai sabaki 体捌き Body movement, body shifting, body turning
Tai sō 体操 Calisthenics, exercises, gymnastics
Tai toku 体得 Body realization; mastery, knack, realization, experience, comprehension
Take ori Breken van een vinger
Taketa Scheidsrechter commando om vechtenden te scheiden
Taki Waterfall
Takuan Sōhō (1573 - 1645) 沢庵 宗彭 Zen priest who influenced kendō
Tamashii Soul or spirit
Tameshigiri 試し切り Test cutting with a sword
Tameshi waza Breektechnieken
Tameshiwari 試し割り Breaking, as in a demonstration of breaking boards or bricks
Tan Gallbladder; spirit
Tan Forge, temper, train, drill, [instill] discipline
Tanden 丹田 Abdomen below the navel; center of balance of the body; in Chinese, dantian
Tandoku renshū 単独練習 Solo practice
Tanin geiko 他人稽古 Practicing with multiple attackers
Tanren 鍛練 Training, as process of forging
Tanshiki kumite Sparring met (door de instructeur bepaalde) gelimiteerde technieken; zoals sparring zonder low kicks of zonder trappen naar het hoofd of uitsluitend traptechnieken (zonder stoten vechten)
Tare 垂れ Hanging; skirts of bōgu or coat
Taryū jiai 他流試合 Challenge match between practitioners of different styles
Tatami Floor mat
Tate Vertical, standing or upright
Tate empi 縦猿臂 Vertical (uppercut) elbow
Tate hiza 立膝 Battlefield sitting posture
Tateken 縦拳 Standing fist
Tateki Meerdere aanvallers
Tateki geiko 干城稽古 Practice with multiple attackers
Tateki uchi 干城 打ち Fighting with multiple attackers
Tate kote ori 縦小手折 Vertical wrist break
Tate Kudasai Verzoek om te gaan staan; sta rechtop alsjeblieft
Tate mae 縦前 Vertical front, facade; keeping a poker face
Tate nukite 縦貫手 Vertical spear hand
Tate shakai 縦社会 Vertical society; system of relationships such as sempai/kohai
Tate shutō uke 縦手刀受 Vertical sword hand block
Tate tsuki Korte stoot waarbij de vuist vertikaal staat (duimzijde omhoog en pinkzijde omlaag)
Tate uke Afweer met rechte handkant
Tate uraken uchi 縦裏拳打 Vertical backfist strike
Tate tsuki 縦突き Vertical punch (punch with vertical or standing fist)
Tatshu Opstaan na meditatie
Tatte 立って "Stand up" (command)
Tawara Rice bale
Te Hand; the indigenous martial art of Okinawa (also ti)
Teep ถีบ Lit "foot jab," push kick with front leg
Tegatana 手刀 Hand sword; also shutō
Teiji dachi 丁字立ち "T stance," with the front foot at right angles to and aligned with the middle of the back foot, cf. renoji dachi
Teishō 底掌 Palm heel; palm heel strike
Teishō ate 底掌当 Palm heel strike
Teishō awase uke 底掌合せ受 Combined palm heel block
Teishō otoshi 底掌落 Palm heel drop
Teishō uchi 底掌打ち Palm heel strike
Teishō uke 底掌受 Palm heel block
Teisoku 低足 Arch of foot or sole of foot
Teisoku osae uke 低足押え受け Sole of the foot pressing block
Teki Opponent
Tekki 鉄騎 “Iron Horse,” karate kata series (shodan, nidan, sandan)
Tekubi 手首 Wrist; lit "neck of the hand"
Tekubikossetsu 手首骨折 Fractured wrist
Tekubi undo 手首運動 Wrist exercises
Tembun jutsu 天文術 Weather forecasting
Ten Heaven; in Chinese, tian tang 天堂
Tenchi 天地 Heaven and earth
Tendo Atemi point on the top of the head, at the frontal coronal suture; also tento
Tenegui 手拭い Small hand cloth used by kendōka under their helmets to absorb sweat; also tenugui, men-tenegui or hachimaki
Tenkai 転回 Pivoting 180 degrees on balls of feet
Tenkan 転換 Pivoting 180 degrees by moving one foot behind the other
Te no hira 手の平 Palm of the hand
Te no yubi 手の指 Finger; also yubi
Tenshin 転進 Sideward body shifting
Tenshin 転身 Pivot or sweeping body turn
Tenshin happō 転身八方 "Movements in eight directions"
Tenshō "Fluid or rolling hand," karate kata credited to Miyagi Chojun
Tensho kata Ontwikkeld door Chojun Miyagi, uit Naha op Okinawa, grondlegger Goju Karatestijl
Tento Atemi point on the top of the head, at the frontal coronal suture; also tendo
Tentori shiai Toernooi waar men bij verlies direct is uitgeschakeld (knock-out system)
Tenugui 手拭い Small hand cloth used by kendōka under their helmets to absorb sweat; also tenegui, men-tenegui or hachimaki
Te osae uke 手押え受 Pressing hand block
Tesaki 手先 Fingertips
Tessen 鉄扇 War fan
Tessen jutsu 鉄扇術 Art of using the war fan
Tetsudai 手伝い Assistant, helper, help
Tettsui 鉄槌 Hammerfist
Tettsui uchi 鉄槌打ち Hammerfist strike
Te waza Verzamelnaam voor handtechnieken
Teura 手裏 Inside of wrist
Tobi 飛び Flying
Tobi geri 飛び蹴 Flying or jumping kick
Tobi kaiten Sprong met rol, soort salto voorover
Tobi kata Sprong methode
Tobi maegeri 飛び前蹴 Jumping front kick
Tobi yokogeri 飛び横蹴 Flying side kick
Tōde 唐手 Precursor to karate, "China hand"; also tōdi, tōte or toudi
Tōdejutsu 唐手術 Same as Tode. Jutsu means art or technique(s)
Tōdi 唐手 "Tang hand" or "China hand"; Okinawan precursor to karate; also also tōde, tōdi, tōteor Okinawa-te
Togeidō 陶芸道 The Japanese way of pottery
Tōhō 刀锋 Sword peak hand
Tok Kruisbescherming
Tōkotsu 橈骨 Radius (arm bone)
Tōkiryō 登記料 Registration fee
Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) 徳川 家康 Shōgun
Tokui 得意 Favorite
Tokui kata 得意形 Favorite or chosen kata
Tokui waza 得意技 Favorite technique
Tokkun 特訓 Intensive or special training
Tōkyō 東京 Capital city of Japan
Tōma 遠間 Long range interval between opponents; one of three ranges of maai in kendō
Tome te De hand die aanvallende techniek(en) afstopt
Tomoe Cirkelvormig, circulair
Tonfa トンファー Kobudō weapon
Traditioneel Japans wapen met origine Okinawa; ooit werkmansgereedschap; gebruikt in Budo, Kobudo en Kojutsu; wordt meestal in paren gebruikt
Tonosama gei 殿様芸 Dilettantism, amateurism
Tonosama keiko 殿様稽古 Dilettante practice; practice by those who intellectualize instead of working with the body
Tora Tiger
Toranai Commando van scheidsrechter om aan te geven date r geen punt is gescoord
Tori Bird
Torimasen Techniek te zwak
Tōrō 螳螂 Praying mantis, a Japanese symbol of courage and cunning, and a harbinger of good fortune; also kamakiri or ōkamakiri mushi
Tōshi 闘志 Fighting spirit, the will to fight
Toshu no bu 徒手の武 Barehanded (weaponless) attack
Tsuchi fumazu 土踏まず Arch of the foot
Tsugi ashi 次ぎ足 Stutter step, move back foot even with front, then step forward with front (type of tai sabaki)
Tsuka Hilt, handgrip, handle; authority
Tsuka maki 柄巻 Wrapping the tsuka, the handle of a sword
Tsukene 付け根 Root, joint, base, crotch or groin
Tsuki Moon
Tsuki Thrust or punch
Tsuki age Opwaartse stoot
Tsukinami shaia Maandelijkse dojo kampioenschap / wedstrijd
Tsuki no sen geiko, tsuki no sen seikō 突きの千稽古 突きの千性交 "A thousand thrusts in martial arts practice and a thousand thrusts in making love are the ingredients for making an individual of character.”
Tsuki no kokoro 月の心 Mind like the moon
Tsuki uchi 突き打ち Strike to throat
Tsukite hajime Wedstrijd hervatten
Tsuki uke Blok door middel van een stoottechniek
Tsuki waza Verzamelnaam voor alle (vereiste) stoottechnieken
Tsukuri 作り Construction; makeup
Tsuma Teen / tenen
Tsumasaki 爪先 Toe; tip of toe
Tsume Nail (body part)
Tsunagari 繋がり Connection, link, relationship (between techniques)
Tsune Training as a “daily habit"
Tsuri komi ashi 钓进足 Step across, two steps forward or backward, type of tai sabaki
Tsuri te 吊手 Lifting hand
Tsuru Bowstring; string that holds the shinai together; string
Tsuru Crane
Tsuru ashi Kruisstap verplaatsing
Tsuru ashi dachi 鶴足立 Stance with one foot hooked behind the other knee
Tsuru dachi 鶴立 Crane stance
Tsutomureba kanrazu tassu "If there is effort, there is always accomplishment"
Tsutsushimi 慎み Restraint, care, discretion, modesty; propriety, circumspect and careful observance of rules
Tsuwamono Soldier; man of courage; strong person
Tsuyoi 強い Strong
Tsuyoki 強気 Firm, strong
Tsuzukette Scheidsrechters commando om door te vechten
Tsusukette hajime Scheidsrechters commando om te starten met vechten
Tuishou 推手 "Pushing hands" exercises of internal kung fu
Turigane Testikels
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
U
U Right; also migi
Uchi 打ち Strike
Uchi Inside
Uchi deshi 内弟子 Live-in or inner student
Uchi hachiji dachi 内八字立 Hachiji dachi with toes pointed inward
Uchi komi Het veelvuldig herhalen van technieken (met partner)
Uchi komi geiko 内込稽古 Partner practice with an advanced student or teacher
Uchi kote Binnenkant voorarm
Uchi ma De afstand waarbij je met 1 enkele stap op stootafstand komt
Uchi mawashigeri 内回し蹴り Inner roundhouse kick
Uchi mikazuki geri Naar binnen cirkelende trap met onderkant voet / voetzool
Uchi otoshi Vallende / neerwaartse slag
Uchi sune uke Scheenbeenblok van binnen naar buiten
Uchina 沖縄 Okinawa
Uchinan Native Okinawan name for Okinawa
Uchi te 打手 Striking hand; the attacker
Uchi ude 內腕 Inside of forearm
Uchi ude uke 內腕受け Inner forearm block
Uchi uke 內受け Inner block
Uchi waza 打技 Striking techniques
Ude Arm or forearm
Ude kansetsu 腕関節 Arm joint
Ude o mae yoko shita ni nobasu undō 腕を前横下に伸ばす運動 Double arm thrusting, junbi undō (warm-up exercise)
Ude uke 腕受け Forearm block
Uhō 右方 Right direction
Ueshiba Morihei (1883-1969) 植芝 盛平 Founder of aikidō
Uke 受け Block; receiving; the receiver of a technique
Uke kaeshi Blok / wering met tegenaanval
Uke waza 受け技 Techniques of receiving
Ukemi 受身 Literally, “receiving body”; breakfall
Undō 運動 Exercise
Unsoku 運足 Stepping, as in from one stance to another
Unsu Handen in de wolken
Ura Backward direction or in the rear side of the opponent
Uraken 裏拳 Backfist
Uraken uke 裏拳受け Backfist block
Ura mawashigeri 裏回し蹴り Reverse roundhouse kick
Ura shutō 裏手刀 Reverse sword hand
Ura uchi 裏打ち Reverse strike
Ura uke Blok van achterste hand
Ura tsuki 裏突き Close punch, bodyshot
Ushiro 後ろ Rear
Ushiro age tsuki 後ろ肋突き Reverse upward punch
Ushiro ashi geri 後ろ足蹴り Kick with the back foot
Ushiro denko Ribbenkast aan achterzijde van het lichaam
Ushiro empi uchi 後ろ肘打ち Back elbow strike
Ushiro geri 後ろ蹴り Back kick
Ushiro geri keage 後ろ蹴り蹴上げ Back snap kick
Ushiro geri kekomi 後ろ蹴り蹴込み Back thrust kick
Ushiro kakato 後ろ踵 Back of the heel
Ushiro mawashigeri 後ろ回し蹴り Reverse roundhouse kick, hook kick
Ushiro oshi 後押 Rear push
Ushiro tekubi 後ろ手首 Back of wrist
Ushiro tobi geri 後ろ飛び蹴り Flying back kick
Ushiro waza 後ろ技 Rear techniques
Ushiro tsuki 後ろ突 Rear thrust (stick technique); rear punch
Uto De brug van de neus / het neusbotje
Utsuri Wisselen / veranderen
Utsuroi 移ろい? Ephemerality, like the reflection in a mirror
Utsuwa Capacity
Utsuwa ga ooki 器が大きい Be of high caliber, big-hearted, magnanimous
Uye Up; also ue
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
W
Wa Accord or harmony
Wa Circle, wheel, ring, loop
Wado ryu De weg van de harmonie (of vrede). In 1939 door Ohtsuka Hidenori opgerichte Karatestijl. Ohtsuka was, net als Mas Oyama, ooit Karateleerling onder Funakoshi Gichin, de oprichter van de Shotokan stijl
Wakarimasu ka 分かりますか "Do you understand?"
Waka sensei 若先生 Young master; son of the headmaster or founder
Wakai 若い Young, green, inexperienced, immature
Waki Ribs, armpit, side, side kamae
Waki kage 脇影 Armpit
Waki no shita 脇の下 Armpit
Wan Arm; also ude or zenwan
Wan ryoku 腕力 Brute strength, physical strength, muscular power, force; cf seishin ryoku
Wantō 腕刀 Forearm, lit "arm sword," also shubō, "arm stick"
Wan uke 腕受け Arm block
Washide Arendshand (klauw)
Waza Technique; also gi
Waza ari 技有 Half point; literally, "Almost a point"
Waza ari awasete ipon Woorden waarmee de scheidsrechter aangeeft dat ippon is gescoord door voor de 2e keer een Wazari te scoren
Waza geiko 技-稽古 Practice in which the student learns and refines technique with a receiving partner
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
Y
Ya Arrow
Yagai geiko 野外稽古 Practice outdoors in nature
Yajiri 砮 or 鏃 Arrowhead
Yajiri kabuyara Barb of an arrow; head of a javelin
Yakusō 薬草 Medicinal herbs and their usage
Yakusoku keiko 約束稽古 Prearranged training
Yakusoku kumite 約束組手 Prearranged sparring in karate-dō
Yama Mountain
Yama bushi 山武士 Japanese ascetic mountain hermit
Yamadera 山寺 Mountain temple
Yamaji uke 山字受け Mountain form block
Yamato damashii 大和魂 Japanese fighting spirit
Yama tsuki 山突き Mountain punch
Yama uke 山受け Mountain block
Yame 止め Command: "Finish/complete your movement"
Yang shi taijiquan 楊氏太極拳 Yang style tai chi chu'an
Yari Spear
Yari jutsu 槍術 Art of the spear; also sōjutsu 槍術
Yasumi 休み Command to rest or relax
Yo Yang; cf. in 陰 (yin)
Yohon nukite 四本贯手 Four-fingered spear hand
Yōi 用意 Ready. Yo means 'work', I means "will' or 'intention'
Yo ibuki 陽息吹 Hard aggressive breathing (yo=yang of yin/yang)
Yōi dachi 用意立ち Ready stance
Yōjō 養生 Hygeine; health care; recuperation
Yōjō gi 養生技 Techniques for healing
Yoko Side
Yoko dachi 横立ち Side stance
Yoko empi Zijwaarts gerichte elleboogstoot
Yoko empi uchi 横肘打ち Side elbow strike
Yoko furimi 横振り身 Sideways motion
Yoko ganmen uchi Zijwaartse slag met vuist naar het gelaat
Yoko geri 横蹴り Side kick
Yoko geri fumikomi 横蹴り踏み込み Side stamping kick
Yoko geri keage 横蹴り蹴上げ Side snap kick
Yoko geri kekomi 横蹴り蹴込み Side thrust kick
Yoko keage Zijwaarts opzwaaien van been
Yoko mawashi empi uchi 横回し肘打ち Side roundhouse elbow strike
Yoko mawashi shuto uchi 横回し手刀打ち Side roundhouse knife hand strike
Yoko mawashi uraken uchi 横回し裏拳打ち Side backfist strike
Yoko men 横面 Side of the head
Yoko tobi geri 横飛び蹴り Flying side kick
Yoko tsuki 横突き Side punch
Yoko uchi 横打ち Side strike
Yoko uke 横受け Sideways receiving, kenjutsu term
Yomi 読み Read
Yon Four; also shi
Yori ashi Korte stap verplaatsing
Yoroi Japanese armor
Yōsei 養成 Training
Yōshūkai 養秀会 Japanese school of karate, lit. "Training Hall of Continued Improvement"
Yowai 弱い Weak
Yowaki 弱気 Timid or faint-hearted presence, personality or sentiment; weak spirit
Yoyū 余裕 Margin, surplus, spare, as in a margin of time (to execute a technique)
Courage
Yubi Finger; also te no yubi
Yubi no fushi 指の節 Knuckle
Yūdansha 有段者 Holder of a dan grade
Yūga 優雅 Elegance, grace, refinement
Yūgen 幽玄 Subtle beauty, lit. "profound mystery"
Yūkan 勇敢 Brave, gallant, heroic
Yūkansa 勇敢さ Bravery, heroism, gallantry
Yuki Snow or snowflake
Yūki 勇気 Courage, bravery
Yukkuri 徐り? Slowly
Yumi Bow; also kyū
Yusei kachi Winst door overduidelijk krachtsverschil
Yusho Winnaar / overwinnaar
Yūsanso undō 有酸素運動 Aerobic exercise
 
MARTIAL ARTS GLOSSARY A B C D E F G H I J K M N O R S T U W Y Z
Z
Za Sitting or seated
Za geri 座蹴り Sitting or kneeling kick
Zaiteki Skill level when actions do not require conscious thought
Zanshin 残心 Remaining mind
Za rei 座礼 Seated bow
Za zen 座禅 Seated meditation
Zekken Geborduurd embleem (op borst of mouw van Dogi) met naam en / of dojo vermelding
Zen Front, prior, previous, last; also mae
Zen All
Zen 禪 or 禅 A Japanese form of Chinese Ch’an Buddhism
Zengaku 前額 Forehead
Zenka fuza 全跏趺坐 Full lotus seated position; also kekka fuza, zenkaza, kaza, kafuza
Zankaza 全跏坐 Full lotus seated position; also kekka fuza, zenka fuza, kaza, kafuza
Zenkoku taikai Nationale kampioenschappen
Zenkutsu 前屈 Forward bent
Zenkutsu dachi 前屈立 Front stance
Zenpo Voor of voorwaarts
Zenpo kaiten ukemi Voorwaartse rol / valbreektechniek
Zenpo ukemi Voorwaartse valbreektechniek
Zenshin 全身 Entire body
Zenshin 前進 Advance, drive or progress
Zenshin 前身 Antecedents, ancestor, previous position, predecessor organization
Zentai Alles; het totale
Zenwan 全腕 Forearm
Zenwan hitai mae yoko gamae 全腕額前横構え Forearm at side of forehead posture, as in the opening block of Pinan Nidan
Zenyō 善用 Good use
Zenzoku 前足 Ball of foot; also koshi or jōsokutei
Zoko Commando waarmee een scheidsrechter vechters aanspoort om door te gaan met vechten
Zokuju 俗儒 Mediocre scholar
Zori Slippers die worden gebruikt om de afstand van kleedkamer naar Dojo te overbruggen
Zu Head, brains, hair, chief, boss, leader, beginning
Zubon ズボン Pants or trousers, esp for keikogi
Zuki 突き Thrust or punch, when characters for tsuki used in combination with others, e.g.gyakutsuki 逆突
Zu tsuki Kopstoot, aanval met hoofd
 

The Seven Virtues of Bushido